Dr. Ravinder Tuteja, Mr. Susuvan Roy, Mr. Rushikesh Raghav
TRADC, Birla Cellulose
Bharuch, Gujarat, India
E mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Modal fibre is known for its softness, smoothness and drape. Industry is using modal fibre in weft along with filament in warp for the dress material to achieve the required attributes in fabric. In the present study we have objectively measured and compared hand feel of two candidates Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal and Cuprammonium Rayon/Modal. It is found that Total Hand Value (THV) is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal than Cuprammonium/Modal by 0.21 basis points. Compression Property is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal since it scores better than Cuprammonium on LC, WC and RC. Stretch and recovery is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal than Cuprammonium/Modal because of higher value of EMT and RT by 0.57and 5.94 basis unit, respectively. Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal stretches more and has better recovery as compared to Cuprammonium/Modal. It is confirmed that Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal is softer than Cuprammonium/Modal because of low values of B and 2HB by 0.0151 and 0.0040. Smoothness is found to be better in case of Cuprammonium/Modal because of lower frictional values.
Key words: Modal, Viscose Filament Yarn, Cuprammonium Rayon, Kawabata
The apparel market can be classified into men’s wear, women’s wear and kids wear segments. Among the women’s wear 40 percent is 100% cotton while remaining are blends. Among different fibres rayon was and continues to be an important fibre in this segment. There are different kinds of rayon fibres such as Viscose, Modal, Lyocell and two filament base i.e. Viscose Filament Yarn & Cuprammonium rayon used in this segment due properties like High absorbency, easy to dye, soft on the skin and Smoothness. Viscose Filament Yarn and Cuprammonium are the most popular filaments used in this segment.
Cuprammonium rayon is usually made in fine filaments that are used in lightweight summer dresses and blouses, sometimes in combination with cotton to make textured fabrics with slubbed, uneven surfaces. Cuprammonium fibre is a new rayon and renewable cellulose better than real silk, especially in absorbency, colorability, drapability, and antistatic property. The end usages of Cuprammonium rayon are variety of fabrics i.e. in Women’s Wear, Blouses, Underwear, Japanese Dresses, Scarves, Curtain, Bedclothes, and Umbrellas etc.
Viscose Filament Yarn, commonly known as “Artificial Silk’ or ‘Art Silk” was a result to find a substitute for silk; it is cellulosic like cotton with aesthetics of silk, but far cheaper than Silk. With the introduction of range of finer deniers with more number of filaments, Viscose Filament Yarn fabric is similar Cupromonium yarn fabric. Further in segments, like Georgette and Crepe fabrics, fabric made from Viscose Filament is superior to Cupromonium yarn due to particular requirements of the fabric. It is a fine and soft material commonly used in t-shirts, tunics, shirts, nightwear and dresses. The other advantages of Viscose Filament Yarn are it is easily available in market. And it is much cost comparative than Cupprammonium. Thus the present study is designed to compare the comfort characteristic of Viscose Filament Yarn and Cuprammonium rayon.
In this study we have selected two most commonly used fabrics in women’s wear to understand the best performance properties. The fabrics were,
- Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal
- Cuprammonium/ Modal
The physical characteristics of both the fabrics are tabulated below in Table 1.
|Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||50D Viscose Filament Yarn||60s Modal||240||84||91.6||Satin||55% Viscose Filament Yarn /45% Modal|
|Cuprammonium/ Modal||50D Cuprammonium Rayon||60s Modal||240||84||92.4||Satin||60% Cuprammonium Rayon /40% Modal|
The comparison is done with the help of comfort property and performance parameters as tabulated in Table 2.
|Sl. No||Property||Unit||Test Method|
|1||Comfort Property||Kawabata Evaluation System|
|2||Abrasion Resistance||%||IS 12673-1989|
|4||Dimensional Stability||%||IS 1299-1984|
Results & Discussion
- Kawabata Evaluation System (KES)
This is a Japanese system of objectively measuring the handfeel of fabric. Various properties are measured to understand handfeel related attributes of the fabric. These are as follows:
1A. Primary and Total Hand Values: Total hand value provides an overall evaluation, which is rated on 1 to 5 scales. 1 rating indicates poor result and 5 rating indicate excellent result. Results in Table 3 shows that Total Hand Value (THV) is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal than Cuprammonium/Modal since the total hand value is higher by 0.21 basis points. As we know the molecular orientation is better in case of Viscose Filament yarn so the hand feel is better in case of Viscose filament fabric.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||Koshi||Numeri||Fukurami||THV|
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||4.40||9.19||8.24||5.00|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||5.52||8.64||8.03||4.80|
1B. Compression properties using Compression Tester (KES-FB3): Compressibility of fabric is defined as the extent or reduction in “Thickness” with the application of normal pressure. Compression Property is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal since it scores better than Cuprammonium on LC, WC and RC as shown in Table 4.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||LC||WC|
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||0.780||0.064||67.25|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||0.907||0.075||61.51|
1C. Tensile properties using Tensile Tester (KES-FB1): It measures the stress / strain parameters at a maximum load for the type of material being tested. Table 5 shows that stretch and recovery is better in case of Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal than Cuprammonium/Modal because of higher value of EMT and RT by 0.57and 5.94 basis unit, respectively.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||LT||WT gf.cm/cm2||RT|
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||Warp||0.728||0.42||73.59||2.28|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||Warp||0.614||0.16||71.04||1.01|
1D. Shear properties using Shear Tester (KES-FB1): Shear properties are measure of inter yarn friction force, it represents the stability of fabric to withstand in plane mechanical distortion. Table 6 confirms that Viscose Filament Yarn/modal have better recovery for stretch as compared to Cuprammonium/Modal.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||G gf/cm.deg||2HG|
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||Warp||0.24||0.06||0.07|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||Warp||0.28||0.15||0.19|
1E. Bending properties using Pure Bending Tester (KES-FB2): It relates to the softness of fabric. Results tabulated in Table 7 confirms that shows that Viscose Filament Yarn X modal is softer than Cuprammonium/Modal because of low values of B and 2HB by 0.0151 and 0.0040.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||B |
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||Warp||0.0178||0.0103|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||Warp||0.0423||0.0252|
1F. Surface Properties using Surface Tester (KES-FB4): It relates to the Surface smoothness, evenness and geometrical arrangement of fabric. Results in Table 8 shows that Smoothness is better in case of Cuprammonium/Modal because of lower frictional values.
|Sample ID No.||Sample Marked as||MIU||MMD||SMD (μm)|
|1||C-14089||Viscose Filament Yarn X Modal||Warp||0.119||0.0034||1.52|
|2||C-14091||Cuprammonium Rayon X Modal||Warp||0.113||0.0033||1.55|
Fabrics were tested and results are tabulated below.
|Property||Unit||Viscose Filament Yarn/Modal||Cuprammonium/Modal||Test Method|
|1||EPI X PPI||Nos.||240 X 84||240X72||IS 1963-1981|
|2||GSM||gms||91.6||92.4||ISO 3801 – 1977|
|4||Abrasion resistance (Wt. loss@2000rev)||%||2.56||2.02||IS 12673-1989|
|6||Dimensional stability||%||Warp: -3.75|
* Performance testing was done at TRADC, Birla dham, Kharach, Dist. Bharuch, Gujrat.
From the above measured parameters, we can conclude that Viscose Filament Yarn /Modal base fabrics are better than Cuprammonium/Modal base fabrics in terms of
- Total Hand Value
- Frictional Properties and
- Compression and Resilience
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. Vijayramakrisnan (Head TRADC) for his valuable guidance, support and encouragement throughout this study.
Very special thanks to the staffs of Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology for the assistance throughout the study.
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