Bamboo is a highly renewable grass and it has natural antibacterial properties resulting it be classified as eco-friendly. The process of manufacturing the Bamboo fibre though, cannot be termed as “environmental-friendly “. Since it involves multiphase bleaching process.

Bamboo is a plant, commonly grown in Asia. It is a type of grass with a hard, woody, hollow stem. Bamboo is the worlds fastest growing plant, sometimes rising several feet in 24 hours. Bamboo grows to maturity in around 3 years. Bamboo fibre has strength, is durable, and has good durability and tenacity. The thinness and whiteness degree of bamboo fibre is similar to classic viscose fibre. It owns high abrasion – proof capacity. It is a natural cellulosic fibre which can cause natural degradation in the soil and it will not cause any pollution to the environment. Bamboo can be spun pure or blended with other materials such as Cotton, Hemp, Silk, Lyocell, etc.

Until you see, feel, spin and blend, you will not believe it. Brilliant white, soft as cotton wool, cool as a mountain stream – is this corny or what? – But its true. The Chinese have triumphed again. The fabric that China use for fashion fabrics is made from Bamboo.

Manufacturing

Bamboo fibreand Bamboo pulp are made from Bamboo that grows widely throughout China. It is a kind of regenerated cellulose fiber, which is produced from raw materials of Bamboo pulp by the sole patented technology of China Bambro Textile Co, Ltd. It is the leading company of application, marketing and services of Bamboo fibre. It is the large scale supplier focus on innovation, manufacturing and trading of the natural, green and biodegradable bamboo textile fibre.  Bambrotex is the leading manufacturer of Bamboo raw materials. They have built the production lines with the most advanced machines (the advanced pulp production system and fibre production system) and they have a stable production capacity of 20000 tons /year now. They produce Bamboo fibre, Bamboo yarns, Bamboo tops and Bamboo filament. It specialises in the research, development and application of the new typed eco-friendly textile material, Bamboo fibre, which fills a new niche in green natural fibre in textile industries. They have started the development and manufacturing of the downstream products of Bamboo fiber like yarns, fabrics and apparels, so as to develop its global market and provide customers with perfect technology services and marketing support.

  Bamboo fibre is made from well –selected non-polluted Bamboo in Yunnan Province.

Firstly, Bamboo pulp is refined from Bamboo through a process of hydrolysis alkalisation and multiphase bleaching.   Then Bamboo pulp is process into Bamboo fibre like the same process of Viscose fibre manufacturing. Bamboo fibre process is wet spinning. Repeated technological analysis has proved that Bamboo fibre has a thinness degree and whiteness degree close to normal finely bleached Viscose and has a strong durability, stability and tenacity. It stands abrasion and possesses a perfect quality to spin. It is available in 1.5 denier x 38 mm, 5 dens x 38 mm and 3 denier x 76 mm. In June of 2001, Bambrotex purchased a small spinning plant of 50,000 spindles with most advanced machines for ring spin yarns. In October 2005, with the requirements of high level fine yarns markets, they brought in another advanced line of compact yarns with the high-level quality as a main supplier to all over the world.

Bamboo yarn is made out of 100% Bamboo fibre or blended with other material. Bamboo yarn can then be made into other final products such as garment, underwear, towel etc. fabric made of Bamboo fibre and Bamboo yarn is characterized by its good hygroscopility, excellent permeability, soft feel, easiness to straighten and dye and splendid color effect of pigmentation. Cloth has been made from Bamboo fibre mixed with Cotton or Ramie or Nylon or Polyester having same superior property. Many kinds of knitting and weaving fabrics are made (piece dyed, yarn dyed or printed)

Bamboo fibre is manufactured in the following qualities.

      Fineness ( dtex )   Staple  length  ( mm )
1.33/1.56/1.67 38
2.00 45
2.22 51
2.78 51
3.33 64/76
5.56 38

Bamboo fibre like viscose fibre is manufactured in following forms.

  1. Bamboo staple fibre.
  2. Bamboo filament.
  3. Bamboo tops.

Bamboo filament

Bamboo Filament looks like silk with the character of bright, smooth and soft. As compared to silk, bamboo filament has better straight performance, low cost, antibacterial, breathable, water absorption.  Bamboo filament are used to make midi, night suit, swimsuit and T-shirt. Products developed with bamboo filaments are quite appreciated by the high-level markets. It is available in the following qualities.

         Fineness (denier )    No of filaments
75 18 / 24
120 30
150 30
300 60

Bamboo Tops

Bamboo Tops were brought by Bambrotex in 2000. They were made by the most advanced machines from Italy and France.  Bamboo tops are made by a combing process that removes the short and nailed Bamboo fibers leaving the longer Bamboo fibres in a parallel alignment. Bamboo tops were used to make Worsted yarns. These are smooth and less likely to pill than Woolen yarns. It is available in the following qualities.

Fineness (dtex) Length (mm)
3.33 76
3.33 88
3.33 90
3.33 100

Bamboo tops are widely used in world textile markets, such as the trouser and suiting fabrics. Bamboo yarn is made in two types.

  1. Bamboo ring spun yarn.
  2. Bamboo compact yarn.

The Bamboo yarn also has the capability of natural anti-bacteria. Bambrotex can supply 100 % Bamboo ring spun yarn (count is from 8 to 50 s) and bamboo 70 % / cotton 30 % (count is from 16 to 50 s) and Bamboo 50 % /cotton 50 % (count is from 16 to 50)

100 % Bamboo compact spun yarn (count is 16 to 40, s)

Characteristics of Bamboo Fibre

Repeated test has proved it has a strong durability, stability and tenacity. The thinness   and whiteness degree of Bamboo fibre is similar to Viscose staple fiber further more it owns high abrasion – proof capacity. Bamboo fibre spins nicely. This fiber is a natural cellulosic fiber which can achieve natural degradation in the soil and it won’t cause any pollution to the environment. Bamboo can be spun purely or blended with other materials such as Cotton, Hemp, Lyocell (Tencel) and Modal fiber. After hi-tech disposal, Bamboo fibre is thinner than hair. It has a round and smooth surface, thus it has no stimulation against human skin. Bamboo fibre’s natural ant-bacteria function differs greatly from that of chemical antimicrobial. The later often tend to cause skin allergy when added to apparel.  Bamboo fibre has particular and natural functions of anti-bacteria, bacteriostatis and deodorisation.

What is notable of Bamboo fibre is its unusual ability to breathe and its coolness because the cross section of the Bamboo fibre is filled with various micro-gaps and micro holes. It has much better moisture absorption and ventilation. With this unparalleled micro structure, Bamboo fibre apparel can absorb and evaporate human sweat in a split second. In cold weather the cross-sectional structure of bamboo traps warm air. In the heat, the nature of Bamboo is to stay around 2 degrees cooler.  Bamboo fabric is a natural moisture wicking agent. It absorbs water 3-4 times better than cotton. Just like breathing, such garments make people feel extremely cool and comfortable in the hot summer. It is never sticking to skin even in hot summer. According to authoritative testing figures, apparels made from Bamboo fibres are 1-2 degrees lower than normal apparels in hot summer. Apparel made from bamboo fibre is crowned as air conditioning dress.

Bambrotex’s Bamboo fibre is validated by Japan Textile Inspection Association, so even after fifty times of washing, Bamboo fibre fabric still possesses excellent function of anti-bacteria, bacteriostasis. Its test result shows over 70% death rate after bacteria being incubated on bamboo fibre fabric.

Dyeing and Finishing of Bamboo Textile

Its light singeing, enzyme desizing, moderate bleaching and semi-mercerizing should be applied to the bamboo fabric during its dyeing and finishing process which also avoid drastic condition and use small mechanical tension.

Following are the steps;

  1. Singeing – moderate condition.
  2. Desizing – it should be consolidate, desizing rate should be over 80 %.
  3. Scouring – pure Bamboo normally need no scouring, sometimes wash it with a little alkaline soap. The scouring process should be made in terms of contents blended with cotton. When pure Bamboo fabrics are under scouring, the alkali should not be over 10 gm/lit but be applied in accordance with the thickness of fabrics.
  4. Bleaching – the processing should be made in terms of the specification and thickness of fabrics.
  5. Mercerizing – the fabrics are normally free of mercerizing due to their sound luster and bad anti-alkaline. However, some cases are found in order to increase their absorbance capacity to dyestuff.
  6. Dyeing – Reactive dyestuff is used the alkali should not be over 20 gms/lit, the temperature should not be over 100 degree celsius during drying process, low temperature and light tension are applied.

The End-Use Of Bamboo Fibre

Bamboo fabrics are made from pure Bamboo fibre yarns which have excellent  wet permeability, moisture vapour transmission property, soft hand, better drape, easy drying and splendid colours. It is a newly founded, great prospective green fabric. Bamboo intimate apparels include sweaters, bath –suits, mats, blankets, towels have comfortable hand, special luster and bright colours, good water absorbancy. Bamboo fibre has a unique function of anti-bacteria, which is suitable to make under wear, tight t-shirt and socks. Its anti-ultraviolet nature is suitable to make summer clothing, especially for the protection of pregnant ladies and young children from damages of ultraviolet radiation.

Bamboo non-woven fabric is made by pure Bamboo pulp, which has similar properties as Viscose fibres have. However, Bamboo has wide prospects in the field of hygiene materials such as sanitary napkin, masks, mattress, and food packaging bags due to its anti- bacteria nature.

Bamboo sanitary materials include bandages, masks, surgical clothes, nurse’s wears and so on. The Bamboo fibre has a natural effect of sterilisation and bacteriostasis and therefore it has incomparably wide for ground on application in sanitary material such as sanitary towels, gauze mask, absorbent pads, and food packing and so on. In the medical scope, it can be processed into the products of Bamboo fibre gauze, operating coat and nurse dresses etc. Because of the natural antibiosis function of the Bamboo fibre the finished products need no adding of any artificial synthesized antimicrobial agent. Therefore, Bamboo fibre products will not cause skin allergies and at the same time it has a competitive advantage in the market. Bamboo bathroom series enjoy good moisture absorption, soft feel and splendid colours as well as anti bacteria property which are very popular in home textiles bamboo towels and bath robes have a soft and comfortable hand feeling and excellent moisture absorption function. Its natural antibiosis function keeps bacterium away so that it will not produce bad odour.

Bamboo decorating series have the functions of antibiosis, bacteriostasis and ultraviolet-proof. They are very advantageous for utilisation in the decorating industry. Along with the badly deterioration of atmosphere pollution and the destruction to the ozonosphere ultraviolet radiation rays are more and more becoming a problem for human beings. Long time exposure to ultraviolet radiation will cause skin cancer. Wallpapers and curtains made from Bamboo fibre can absorb ultraviolet radiation in various wavelengths thus they lessen the harm to the human body. More important, bamboo decorating products will not go moldy due to damp. Curtains, television covers, wallpapers and sofa slip covers can  all be made from  Bamboo fibres .

Dr N.N.Mahapatra
President

COLORANT LTD