The loom is a machine or device which is used to produce the woven fabric. It is the central point of the whole process of cloth production. In other words, a loom is a mechanism or tool used for weaving yarn and thread into textiles. Looms vary in a wide assortment of sizes. They come in huge free standing handlooms, tiny hand-held frames, to vast automatic mechanical tools. A loom can as well pertain to an electric line construction like that of a wiring loom. The main task of looms is to clutch the twist threads under pressure to enable the progress of the interweaving of the woof strands. The loom’s system and exact form can diner to some extent; however it still performs the basic application.

MODERN LOOM:                             

a) Air jet loom

b)Water jet loom.

c)Rapier loom.

d)Projectile/Missile loom.

e)Multiphase loom.



This looms use a jet of air to propel the filling yarn strength the shed,lt requires uniform filling yarn. They are suitable for use with medium weight yarns then very light and very heavy yarn.


  • Power consumption less
  • Much production std. Fabric and light to medium fabric produced
  • Air jet std. Width 190 cm.
  • Highest weft insertion perform (600 ppm)
  • Multicolor weft insertion up to 8.


  • Air jet standard. Width 190 cm.
  • Power consumption less
  • Highest weft insertion performance(600 ppm)
  • Noise levels are lower than missile and rapier loom.


  • Due to air resistance there form pile up and buckle tip of the yarn
  • Some times there is a formed loom of weft yarn along weft direction due to variation of air pressure.
  • Double pick may occur
  • An excess air pressure of the main nozzle causes miss picks or broken pick.

A pre-measured length of filling yarn is carried across the loom by a jet of can produce superior quality of fabrics.


  • This type of loom is suitable for non absorbent fiber like synthetic fabric
  • Less power consumption
  • Highest weft insertion (600 ppm)
  • weft yarn package weight 3.6-4. I kg
  • Treated water are used by a pump nozzle.


  • Less power consumption
  • Production rate is high
  • Noise level is lower then missile and rapier loom
  • This type of loom is suitable for non absorbent fiber like synthetic fiber.


  • Not suitable for absorbent fiber like (cotton)
  • By hard water may form rust on the yarn.


These looms are competitors to the missile looms. There are two types of rapier looms. Long rapier & double rapier long/single rapier that carries the weft across the width from one side of the loom to another.Double rapier that is one on each side of the loom. One rapier feeds the filling yarn halfway through the shed of warp yarn to the arm the other side, which reach in and takes it across the rest of the way.


  • Fancy fabric produced
  • Production costly
  • Power consumption moderate
  • Simple mechanism
  • Suitable for weft patterning
  • Standard rapier width 190 cm.


  • Fancy fabric produced
  • Production costly
  • Suitable for weft patterning
  • Power consumption moderate
  • Simple mechanism
  • Production speed (200-260 ppm)


  • Noise level is high then jet loom
  • Production speed is less then jet loom.

This picking action is accomplished by a series of small bullet projectiles which grip the filing yarn and carry it through the shed and return empty.


  • Accommodator used to reduce tension
  • Power consumption is less (3 km-hr)
  • Ofprojectile Il to 17
  • Width minimum of 190 cm
  • Width maximum of 540 cm
  • Multiple fabric produce
  • A double beam single fabric can be produced in the projectile.


  • Fashionable fabric may produce
  • Drawing-in pinning of drop wires and knotting are accepted practice
  • The weft and warp stop motions actuate first and reliable
  • Simple to operate and maintain
  • Less noisy then shuttle looms.


  • Require skilled personnel
  • High initial investment
  • High noisy than jet loom
  • It lasted long.



More than one tape is produced. More than one shuttle is used, Shuttle are traversed on belt No. Of shuttle tapes are placed on race board grove length of shuttle=3″, length of pirn —2″


This type of loom, one angular needle always carries the yarn horizontally. Weft yarn comes from the top of the machine; the latch needle makes the loop at one side of the selvage. No. Of tapes/one loom obtained.



  • http://www.preiectile
  • http//www Rapier Imm com
  • http://www.Water
  • http//www power mm com


  • Weaving Mechanism, N.N.Banerjee
  • Studies in Primitive looms, H. Ling Rock
  • Fabric Manufacturing Technology-IV, Md. Al-Amin Sheikh
  • Weaving Machine, mechanism & Management, Talukder
  • Special Fabric Production, Md. Al-Amin Sheik

Article written by Swati Patali B.Sc in Textile and Apparel Designing from Sir Vithaldas Thackersey College of Home Science. Textile Value Chain intern.