One of the three fundamental necessities of humans is clothing. Textile has been used for clothing since the dawn of civilization, and as civilization advanced, it was also employed for domestic and home purposes. Textiles were employed in a variety of ways thousands of years ago, including sailcloth, tents, protective clothing, ropes, etc. These textiles were all essentially technical and were primarily used for their actual specifications. Materials and constructions that can perceive and respond to environmental cues or stimuli, such as those derived from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electronic, magnetic, or other sources, are referred to as smart textiles. Today’s state of textile science is innovative, uncharted, and dream-filled.

Smart textiles also known as e-textiles, are textiles that can have integrated electronic parts, such as batteries, LEDs, sensors, and micro controllers. They should not be confused with “smart textiles,” which are fabrics created using cutting-edge technology that add value.

Virtually every branch of applied science is incorporated into the technology of smart textiles, including:

  • Fiber technology
  • Cloth manufacturing technology
  • Material science
  • Structural mechanics and aviation hydraulics
  • Electronics and instrumentation
  • Telecommunication
  • AI
  • Biotechnology

What Characterizes Smart Functional Textiles?

The development of technical textiles has been influenced by the photonics and electronics sectors. The development of functional fabrics known as smart textiles is made possible by the use of optical sensors and plastic optical fibre. Technical textile manufacture is fundamentally a large field of cutting-edge yarn systems coupled with textile formation methods. The finished structure can be further modified using composite, laminating, and coating techniques.

Smart fabrics are made by combining technology and fibres, depending on their intended function. These fibres include fibre optics, various tiny electronics, shape-memory polymers, encapsulated phase transition materials, and conductive yarns and polymers. They might also add things from outside, like:

  • Sensors
  • Chemical procedures
  • Thermochromic dyes

Energy is transferred as a result of the interactions between these materials and external stimuli like pressure, light, or temperature. The response of the functional fabric depends on its function after activation.

What Purposes Do Smart Textiles Serve?

The two primary categories of smart textiles are as follows:

  • Aesthetics:

Smart fabric has recently become popular in the fashion sector. Aesthetic smart textiles can change colour and light up, have an interactive component, or react to their surroundings. Fashion designers have indeed adapted to the new technology, developing entire collections using intelligent fabrics. Decor and design components fall under this area as well.

  • Enhancement of performance: 

Enhancement of performance:  This includes regulating body temperature, lowering wind and water resistance, protecting against radiation, lessening the negative impacts of space flight, and even regulating muscle vibration.

Smart textiles in the fashion industry

People’s everyday tech-friendly lifestyles in the present era are encouraging the use of smart fabrics in the fashion sector. People embrace a wide variety of smart attire simply for fashion’s sake in order to be smart. This section of smart textile in fashion combines fast fashion and intelligence. ­The ICD+ jacket was introduced by Philips and Levi Strauss in 2000. That combines an MP3 player and a mobile phone that can be managed remotely. The ICD+ jacket was the first smart jacket that was also a wearable device.

Canes is introduced electrically heated wool socks in 2004–2005. The conductive yarns and wool used in the production of the smart socks are designed with trekking in mind. For use on individuals who have poor circulation or in extremely cold environments, battery-powered shocks are ideal. The amount of heat produced by smart shocks is the same as the rapid heat loss. This invention completely transforms the sportswear industry’s use of smart textiles. Many commercially available pieces of clothing are made with the help of smart textile technologies.

The fashion industry’s adoption of smart textiles has misdirected their potential range of uses. Grand view, according to research, over the next few years, the compound annual rate of growth for textiles will skyrocket. There has been an increase in demand for more sophisticated and intelligent textile products as technology develops. This has been the main driver of the market in North America, together with the quick creation of low-cost smart wireless sensors. The rapidly expanding healthcare and construction sectors are credited with driving the market for smart textiles in the Asia-Pacific region. On the other hand, Europe’s expanding vehicle sector is accelerating the growth of smart fabrics on this continent.


Scientists and designers have long been interested in smart textiles and useful fabrics. They first appeared in headlines and on runways only lately. Additionally, consumers and engineers push the boundaries of smart fabrics more and more as they gain knowledge about them.These fabrics’ capabilities will develop as scientists work to improve them, enabling them to serve as a kind of second skin. Although there is already cloth that regulates temperature, advancement will enable a more flexible user experience. The cloth can read inputs and change its energy in response. The sector of health and wellness is probably going to experience some of the biggest advancements.

The sector of health and wellness is probably going to experience some of the biggest advancements. Companies in the beauty and pharmaceutical industries are investigating how to create materials that benefit the wearer’s health. This encompasses the capacity for:

  • Utilize sensors to monitor the patients’ physiological state
  • Anti-aging clothing materials, lotions, and fragrances
  • Dispense medication using a wearable cloth

The development of wear-resistant clothes is currently under way thanks to the invention of smart fabric. Self-healing and repairing cloth might become a reality with further development. Tears, perforations, and seam rips might disappear altogether. Clothing purchases could transition from one-time to recurring ones.We may anticipate that the garment sector will introduce smart textiles to the market first by integrating technology using flexible printed electronic technologies in the near future. After 2021, integrated electronic textiles will be present in a wide range of commercial sectors, offering integrated communication services, touch-sensitive remote controls, energy harvesting, and charging built right into the textile structure. Knitting and weaving innovations are establishing the benchmarks for the production of e-textiles, and Apex Mills is paving the way.