Shyam Barhanpurkar , Ajay Joshi,  Ayush Kumar ,Alok Kumar

1 & 2 Assistant Professor, Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science, Indore

4th Associate professor UPTTI KANPUR


Clothing is one of the three basic human needs from primitive ages, Textile is used for        clothing which was extended to household and domestic purposes. But in the present scenario, there are textiles that can think for themselves. My paper is based on smart textile. As the name suggest, “smart textile are which sense or stimuli the environmental condition they can change or react automatically to their surroundings.” My emphasis is placed on the seamless integration between the fabric and the electronic elements using fibertronics and in phase changing materials, microphones in gloves, sensors in mattresses, fabric which sense heart rate of person. After several introspections and findings through various books, references and websites.  I have concluded that with the use of smart textile the fabric of future will enhance in helping people in the field of medical  and for security purpose and also in fashion clothing. This can prove to be the next biggest revolution in the textile industry.

Keywords:phase changing material (pcm), Microencapsulation, Fibertronics.

  1. Introduction:-

Intelligent textiles represent the next generation of fibers, fabrics and articles produced from them .They can be described as textile materials that think for themselves, for example through the incorporation of electronic devices or smart materials. Many intelligent textiles already feature in advanced types of clothing, principally for protection and safety and for added fashion or convenience. As the name suggest, smart textiles, which can sense or stimuli the environmental condition. But there is some substantive difference between smart & intelligent textile. Smart textiles or materials can be defined as the materials & structures which have sense or can sense the environmental condition or stimuli whereas intelligent textile can be defined as textile structures which not only can sense but can also react & respond to environmental condition or stimuli. These stimuli as well as response could be mechanical, thermal, electric, magnetic or from other source. Smart textile is also known as E-textile. They are fabrics that enable computing, digital components, and electronics to be embedded in them. Part of the development of wearable technology, they are known as intelligent clothing or smart clothing because they allow for the incorporation of built-in technological elements in everyday

textiles and clothes.  Electronic textiles do not strictly encompass wearable computing because emphasis is placed on the seamless integration between the fabric and the electronic elements, such as cables, microcontrollers, sensors and actuators. The field of embedding advanced electronic components onto textile fibers is sometimes called Fibertronics.

Smart textiles can be divided in to four categories:-

  1. Passive Smart Textiles.
  2. Active Smart Textiles.
  3. Very Smart Textiles.
  4. Intelligent Textiles.
  1. Passive smart textile: – The first generations of smart textiles, which can only sense the environmental conditions or stimulus , are called Passive Smart Textiles.

2 .Active Smart Textile: – The Second Generation has both actuators and sensors. The actuators act upon the detected signal either directly or from a central control unit. Active smart textiles are shape memory, chameleonic, water resistant and various permeable, heat storage, thermal regulated, vapor absorbing, heat evolving fabric and electrically heated suits.

  1. Very smart textiles: – Very smart textiles are the third generation of smart textiles, which can sense, react and adopt themselves to environmental conditions or stimuli. A very smart or intelligent textile essentially consists of a unit, which works like the brain, with cognition, reasoning and activating capacities..(1) (3)
  2. Intelligent Textiles: – which are those capable of responding or activated to perform a function in a manual pre-programmed manner.

Smart fabrics are little bit different from general fabrics this fabrics has additional features which makes this fabric different this fabrics help the person to know about their body condition and other Para meters of the body and not only this fabrics helps person to know about their body condition they also help in making one person’s life entertaining by attaching speakers,microphones and LED  screen and gaming consoles in fabric. To provide all this features in fabric various concepts are used in manufacturing of this fabrics.  Now a day’s smart textile has wide use in medical textile. for making smart fabric yarn is get weaved with wires   which helps in circulating signals and electricity in a fabric due to this all the parts which are attached in fabric can able   to work this concept is known as fibertronics, and this are get managed in that that it could not harm the person body when they wear that fabric on their body.

The design process of an smart textile should appreciate the complexity, cost, and effectiveness of system. This process must be based on a set of percept derived from the experience and developing concepts.

Functions of smart textile:-
Basically smart textile has 5 functions which are:-

  1. Sensors
  2. Data processing.
  3. Actuators
  4. Storage
  5. Communication
  1. Sensors:-its function is to sense the external environmental condition and capture the actual environmental parameters.

    Ex .blood pressure measuring sensor, pulse rate measuring sensor.

  1. Data processing:-its function is to process the data which was collected by various embedded materials and  respond to external stimuli according to the condition.

   Ex. processors

  1. Actuators:-its function is to respond on the data which was sensed by the sensors and coordinate to obtain appropriate output.
  2. storage:-its function is to store the data related to external enviormental stimuli which was collected by various sensors and others material .

5.  Communication:-sometimes smart clothes needs to interact or communicate with        input others devices or other external devices to transfer information related to external stilmuli. so various wireless devices like Bluetooth device, wifi, speakers are embedded in fabric which helps to transfer the information of present place. which helps to react according to external stimuli.

  1. PCM (phase changing material) in Smart textile:-

Fundamental principles of science are now increasingly employed for manufacturing innovative textile products. One such principle is ‘Phase Change’, the process of going from one physical state to another, i.e., from a solid to a liquid. Substances that undergo the process of Phase Change are better known as Phase Change Materials (PCMs). These materials store, release or absorb heat as they oscillate between solid and liquid form. They give off heat as they change to a solid state and absorb as they return to a liquid state. The three fundamental phases of matter solid, liquid, and gas are known, but others are considered to exist, including crystalline, colloid, glassy, amorphous, and plasma phases. The technology of PCMs relies on their change in state, generally from solid to liquid and back, but also from liquid and gaseous states, solid and gaseous states and even solid to solid states. When the temperature increases and reaches the melting point of the PCM, the melted PCM absorbs heat, inhibiting the flow of thermal energy through the fabric, and maintaining its temperature constant. When the external conditions and the PCM cools down and solidifies, the reverse occurs, and heat is released to keep the wearer warm see. This phenomenon only occurs over a specific temperature or temperature range for any specific PCM. It is also a unique way of transmitting comfort by absorbing excess heat and releasing it when needed. The way PCMs work is explained by the fact that when altering phase, they display a very large latent heat and while doing so they retain the energy and provide insulation.    Since the process of phase change is dynamic, the materials are constantly changing from a solid to a liquid and back depending upon level of physical activity of the body and outside temperature. To obtain these unique and fantastic properties of PCM phenomena of micro encapsulation is used.

Textile treatment with PCM microcapsules

Microencapsulated PCMs can either be distributed within fibres or coated onto the fabric (Figure 1). Whilst the concept of using PCMs is clearly a very attractive one, there are still a number of limitations. Acrylic is the only commercially available fibre that is compatible with PCMs, and there is an upper limit to the amount of PCM that can be incorporated in the fibres before tensile properties are appreciably reduced. Where PCMs have been coated onto fabrics, fabric hand may be compromised, and durability to abrasion during wear and to washing and dry-cleaning may be lowered.

Depending on the application, there are three different possibilities to apply microencapsules:
1. the microcapsules can be located inside the fiber. The fiber can be processed in the normal way and these types of products are being worn next to skin.
2. It can be used as coating. This can be applied to different materials for using different products.
3. It can also be applied a foam for products such as shoes and helmets.
Micro-encapsulation of PCMs.

What changes are occurring when PCM micro capsulation is used in smart fabric:-

In treating textile structures with PCM microcapsules for garment applications, the following thermal benefits are realized:

  • A cooling effect, caused by heat absorption of the PCM.
  • A heating effect, caused by heat emission from the PCM
  • A thermo-regulating effect, resulting from either heat absorption or heat emission of the PCM.
  1. Applications of textiles containing PCMs
  • Lifestyle apparel – smart jackets, vests, men’s and women’s hats, gloves and rainwear
  • Outdoor active wear apparel – jackets and jacket lining, boots, golf shoes, trekking shoes, socks, ski and snowboard gloves.

The use of phase change materials (PCMs) in Smart textiles is an alternative form of improving the insulation of the textiles to the high volume insulation, which is the standard insulation applied when using nonwoven.

5. A Smart fabric which clean without washing or using water:-

As in daily life we wear fabrics and it also gets dirty we have to clean by washing which require lot of water and time and we can use it when it will dry all the way which require lot of time but some scientist has find solution of this problem and they are still working on it they introduce a new concept in which dirty cloth get clean without washing cloth are gets cleaned by exposing it in sunlight. This technique is very helpful which saves lot of water, time, and money of people. as water is a must need thing for human civilization lot of water is get wasted in cleaning  cloth this technology is very good which save lot of water. Nowadays peoples are very busy in their work that they do not have time for clean their daily wear cloths also people who are working in kitchens having headache to wash their garments. Also military peoples have to survive in such drastic condition that they cannot wash their cloths.

Recent experiments show that cotton fabric coated with the right mixture of chemicals can dissolve stains and remove odors after only a few hours in the sun. Handy fabric gets its self-cleaning abilities from a chemical mixture that coats the cotton threads. The coating includes substances known as photo catalysts, which trigger chemical reactions in light. One of those photo catalysts, called titanium dioxide, helps sunscreen block the sun and is used as tattoo ink. Another, called silver iodide, is used for developing photographs. Researchers have previously shown that titanium dioxide mixtures could remove stains in clothes — but with exposure to ultraviolet, not visible, light. (The waves of ultraviolet light are more energetic and shorter than those of visible light.).

Self cleaning fabric work on various principles they are:-

  • Using Photo catalyst
  • Using microwaves
  • Using carbon nanotubes
  • Using Metal oxide colloidal
  • Using silver nanoparticles
  • Using chlorine halamine

From all this techniques photo catalyst method is explained here :-

5.1 Working of photo catalyst method:-

The self-cleaning fabrics work using the photo catalytic properties of titanium dioxide, compound used in much new nanotechnology solar cell applications. The fabric is coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide particles that measure only 20 nanometers in diameter. When this semi-conductive layer is exposed to light, photons with energy equal to or greater than the band gap of the titanium dioxide excite electrons up to the conduction band. The excited electrons within the crystal structure react with oxygen atoms in the air, creating free-radical oxygen. These oxygen atoms are powerful oxidizing agents, which can break down most carbon-based compounds through oxidation-reduction reactions. In these reactions, the organic compounds (i.e. dirt, pollutants, and micro organisms) are broken down into substances such as carbon dioxide and water. Since the titanium dioxide only acts as a catalyst to the reactions, it is never used up. This allows the coating to continue breaking down stains over and over.

Problems related with self cleaningTextile:-

1.As in this process we use many chemicals which can harm to our body. The scientists can’t start selling their self-cleaning cotton just yet; scientists still need to make sure the coated cotton won’t harm those who wear it. Although titanium dioxide is used in some foods, recent experiments have shown that it can cause health problems if it gets in the lungs. So before the material can be worn, scientists need to find a way to make it safe.

  1. Smart mattress which sense our body:-

Nowadays scientist has discovered a new type of mattress by embedding various sensors in it by this sensors the body of a person is sensed andvarious parts in yhe body and their conditions are easily detected.this type of mattress is very useful in field of medical.In early days patients body are attached with various wires during treatment this wire are attached due to get accurate information of body parts which needs lots of concentration of persons working their. but with introduction of this advance mattress numerous improvements in the medical field have been made to reduce the number of monitors physically attached to a patient and the size and number of devices in a hospital room by integrating certain sensor devices into the existing bedding of a patient. A mattress pad has at least two pressure-sensitive piezoelectric sensors positioned in a rigid pad beneath the patient’s mattress. The mattress pad includes a processor to receive all sensor measurements and calculate heart and respiration rates, which are determined by subtracting the pressure signals corresponding to the upper body and the lower body of a patient and mathematically determining the maximum difference of signal between each group of sensors. The heart and respiration rates are then transmitted by a cable to existing patient monitoring equipment. A Smart Mattress as described herein would include a data storage unit (“DSU”) for storing patient information (e.g., demographics such as name, height, weight, gender, date of birth, race, religion, blood type and other patient particulars), physiological sensors for automatically updating the patient’s vital statistics (e.g., body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram), and a processor for handling, processing and/or time-stamping any updates to a DSU. The sensors may be embedded in the mattress or directly coupled to the patient. When the sensor is coupled to a patient, the Smart Mattress may wirelessly communicate information with the sensor using short-range wireless communication, e.g., Bluetooth technology. A Smart Mattress includes an on-board power source, such as a rechargeable battery, to increase the portability of a Smart Mattress. The rechargeable battery may be recharged using the standard AC wall current or the battery may be removed and charge using a dock or charging station. This mattress contain various things in it which provide various information about a patient body they are it contain processing device, circuits, signal modifying devices, various chips, data  processor are used which helps in providing and storing data of person. Integrating a Smart Mattress with a hand-held device or an emergency evacuation system has not been done. Use of a Smart Mattress alone or in combination with a portable device will enhance data collection during both day-to-day monitoring and in emergency evacuations. Use of a Smart Mattress improves data accuracy, reduces paperwork, supports collection of more complete information, eliminates redundant data entry, allows faster adaptation to changing conditions and provides access to previously unavailable information. Additionally, when a patient is transferred to an alternate facility, patient records, which may be stored in a Smart Mattress DSU, travel with the patient.

  1. Uses and application of smart textile for human society:-

Smart textile is can be used for various purposes like foe military purposes, safety purposes, fashion purpose ,.it remove climate problems for humans by changing their property according to climate which provide relief to human body and it is also used for medical purpose also. smart textile can good for environment point of view as it saves lot of water as we know water is very important for human civilization. it can solve the problem of water shortage also. and it is used as for fashion purpose also. it also minimize the use of various gadgets  and also saves lot of space. And as wearing point of view it is very comfortable and safe also. smart textile is also helpful for health monitoring purposes. and It also provide employment for various persons.

  1. Conclusion:-

The main purpose of me ofselecting this topic and making a paper on this paper is that i want to provide information about what technologies are used  in manufacturing of smart textile and I have cover some of the technologies in my paper.As we live in mordhern and high tech world  so it is good to adopt smart textile in our life due to this our life will become more easy and interactive. As the smart textile is avalible in market is are of high cost because the manufacturing of smart textile Is so is smart idea to adopt such technology on daily life by spending some more money to get good service and some more additional function in textile is also good for enviormental ponit of view it save many water and energy. smart textile is can be considred as a future fabric.