A hairstyle, hairdo, or haircut refers to the styling of hair, usually on the human scalp. Sometimes, this could also mean an editing of facial or body hair. The fashioning of hair can be considered an aspect of personal grooming, fashion, and cosmetics, although practical, cultural, and popular considerations also influence some hairstyles.
The oldest known depiction of hair styling is hair braiding which dates back about 30,000 years. In history, women’s hair was often elaborately and carefully dressed in special ways. From the time of the Roman Empire until the Middle Ages, most women grew their hair as long as it would naturally grow. Between the late 15th century and the 16th century, a very high hairline on the forehead was considered attractive. Around the same time period, European men often wore their hair cropped no longer than shoulder-length. In the early 17th century, male hairstyles grew longer, with waves or curls being considered desirable.
The male wig was pioneered by King Louis XIII of France (1601–1643) in 1624. Perukes or periwigs for men were introduced into the English-speaking world with other French styles in 1660. Late 17th-century wigs were very long and wavy, but became shorter in the mid-18th century, by which time they were normally white. Short hair for fashionable men was a product of the Neoclassical movement. In the early 19th century the male beard, and also moustaches and sideburns, made a strong reappearance. From the 16th to the 19th century, European women’s hair became more visible while their hair coverings grew smaller. In the middle of the 18th century the pouf style developed. During the First World War, women around the world started to shift to shorter hairstyles that were easier to manage. In the early 1950s women’s hair was generally curled and worn in a variety of styles and lengths. In the 1960s, many women began to wear their hair in short modern cuts such as the pixie cut, while in the 1970s, hair tended to be longer and looser. In both the 1960s and 1970s many men and women wore their hair very long and straight. In the 1980s, women pulled back their hair with scrunchies. During the 1980s, punk hairstyles were adopted by many people.
Early modern history
During the 15th and 16th centuries, European men wore their hair cropped no longer than shoulder-length, with very fashionable men wearing bangs or fringes. In Italy it was common for men to dye their hair. In the early 17th century male hairstyles grew longer, with waves or curls being considered desirable in upper-class European men.
The male wig was supposedly pioneered by King Louis XIII of France (1601–1643) in 1624 when he had prematurely begun to bald. This fashion was largely promoted by his son and successor Louis XIV of France (1638–1715) that contributed to its spread in European and European-influenced countries. The beard had been in a long decline and now disappeared among the upper classes.
Perukes or periwigs for men were introduced into the English-speaking world with other French styles when Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, following a lengthy exile in France. These wigs were shoulder-length or longer, imitating the long hair that had become fashionable among men since the 1620s. Their use soon became popular in the English court. The London diarist Samuel Pepys recorded the day in 1665 that a barber had shaved his head and that he tried on his new periwig for the first time, but in a year of plague he was uneasy about wearing it:
3rd September 1665: Up, and put on my coloured silk suit, very fine, and my new periwig, bought a good while since, but darst not wear it because the plague was in Westminster when I bought it. And it is a wonder what will be the fashion after the plague is done as to periwigs, for nobody will dare to buy any haire for fear of the infection? That it had been cut off the heads of people dead of the plague.
Late 17th-century wigs were very long and wavy (see George I below), but became shorter in the mid-18th century, by which time they were normally white (George II). A very common style had a single stiff curl running round the head at the end of the hair. By the late 18th century the natural hair was often powdered to achieve the impression of a short wig, tied into a small tail or “queue” behind (George III).
George II (1683–1760) wore fairly long white wigs
George III (1738–1820) wore short white wigs (until he went mad, when his hair and beard were often left untended)
George IV (1762–1830) wore powdered hair as a young man, then switched to a neoclassical “Titus cut”
From the 16th to the 19th century, European women’s hair became more visible while their hair coverings grew smaller, with both becoming more elaborate, and with hairstyles beginning to include ornamentation such as flowers, ostrich plumes, ropes of pearls, jewels, ribbons and small crafted objects such as replicas of ships and windmills. Bound hair was felt to be symbolic of propriety: loosening one’s hair was considered immodest and sexual, and sometimes was felt to have supernatural connotations.Red hair was popular, particularly in England during the reign of the red-haired Elizabeth I, and women and aristocratic men used borax, saltpeter, saffron and sulfur powder to dye their hair red, making themselves nauseated and giving themselves headaches and nosebleeds. During this period in Spain and Latin cultures, women wore lace mantillas, often worn over a high comb, and in Buenos Aires, there developed a fashion for extremely large tortoise-shell hair combs called peinetón, which could measure up to three feet in height and width, and which are said by historians to have reflected the growing influence of France, rather than Spain, upon Argentinians.
In the middle of the 18th century the pouf style developed, with women creating volume in the hair at the front of the head, usually with a pad underneath to lift it higher, and ornamented the back with seashells, pearls or gemstones. In 1750, women began dressing their hair with perfumed pomade and powdering it white. Just before World War I, some women began wearing silk turbans over their hair.
Since the 1960s and 70s, women have worn their hair in a wide variety of fairly natural styles. In the 1980s, women pulled back their hair with scrunchies, stretchy ponytail holders made from cloth over fabric bands. Women also often wear glittery ornaments today, as well as claw-style barrettes used to secure ponytails and other upswept or partially upswept hairstyles. Today, women and men can choose from a broad range of hairstyles, but they are still expected to wear their hair in ways that conform to gender norms: in much of the world, men with long hair and women whose hair doesn’t appear carefully groomed may face various forms of discrimination, including harassment, social shaming or workplace discrimination. This is somewhat less true of African-American men, who wear their hair in a variety of styles that overlap with those of African-American women, including box braids and cornrows fastened with rubber bands and dreadlocks.
Stylists often wash a subject’s hair first, so that the hair is cut while still slightly damp. Compared to dry hair, wet hair can be easier to manage in a cut/style situation because the added weight and surface tension of the water cause the strands to stretch downward and cling together along the hair’s length, holding a line and making it easier for the stylist to create a form. It is important to note that this method of cutting hair while wet, may be most suitable (or common) for straight hair types. Curly, kinky and other types of hair textures with considerable volume may benefit from cutting while dry, as the hair is in a more natural state and the hair can be cut evenly.
Hair cutting or hair trimming is intended to create or maintain a specific shape and form. There are ways to trim one’s own hair but usually another person is enlisted to perform the process, as it is difficult to maintain symmetry while cutting hair at the back of one’s head.
Brushing and combing
Brushes and combs are used to organize and untangle the hair, encouraging all of the strands to lie in the same direction and removing debris such as lint, dandruff, or hairs that have already shed from their follicles but continue to cling to the other hairs.
There are all manner of detangling tools available in a wide variety of price ranges. Combs come in all shapes and sizes and all manner of materials including plastics, wood, and horn. Similarly, brushes also come in all sizes and shapes, including various paddle shapes. Most benefit from using some form of a wide tooth comb for detangling. Most physicians advise against sharing hair care instruments like combs and clips, to prevent spreading hair conditions like dandruff and head lice.
The historical dictum to brush hair with one hundred strokes every day is somewhat archaic, dating from a time when hair was washed less frequently; the brushstrokes would spread the scalp’s natural oils down through the hair, creating a protective effect. Now, however, this does not apply when the natural oils have been washed off by frequent shampoos. Also, hairbrushes are now usually made with rigid plastic bristles instead of the natural boar’s bristles that were once standard; the plastic bristles increase the likelihood of actually injuring the scalp and hair with excessively vigorous brushing. However, traditional brushes with boar’s bristles are still commonly used among African Americans and those with coarse or kinky textures to soften and lay down curls and waves.
Hair dryers speed the drying process of hair by blowing air, which is usually heated, over the wet hair shaft to accelerate the rate of water evaporation.
Excessive heat may increase the rate of shaft-splitting or other damage to the hair. Hair dryer diffusers can be used to widen the stream of air flow so it is weaker but covers a larger area of the hair.
Hair dryers can also be used as a tool to sculpt the hair to a very slight degree. Proper technique involves aiming the dryer such that the air does not blow onto the face or scalp, which can cause burns.
Braiding and updos
Tight or frequent braiding may pull at the hair roots and cause traction alopecia. Rubber bands with metal clasps or tight clips, which bend the hair shaft at extreme angles, can have the same effect.
An updo is a hair style that involves arranging the hair so that it is pointing up. It can be as simple as a ponytail, but is more commonly associated with more elaborate styles intended for special occasions such as a prom or weddings.
If hair is pinned too tightly, or the whole updo slips causing pulling on the hair in the follicle at the hair root, it can cause aggravation to the hair follicle and result in headaches. Although some people of African heritage may use braiding extensions (long term braiding hairstyle) as a form of convenience and/or as a reflection of personal style, it is important not to keep the braids up longer than needed to avoid hair breakage or hair loss. Proper braiding technique and maintenance can result in no hair damage even with repeated braid styles.
Curling and straightening
Curling and straightening hair requires the stylist to use a curling rod or a flat iron to get a desired look. These irons use heat to manipulate the hair into a variety of waves, curls and reversing natural curls and temporarily straightening the hair. Straightening or even curling hair can damage it due to direct heat from the iron and applying chemicals afterwards to keep its shape. There are irons that have a function to straighten or curl hair even when its damp (from showering or wetting the hair), but this requires more heat than the average iron (temperatures can range from 300 to 450 degrees). Heat protection sprays and hair-repairing shampoos and conditioners can protect hair from damage caused by the direct heat from the irons.
Starting at the top of the alphabet there is: blowout, bowl cut, buzz cut, Caesar, comb-over, crew cut, disconnected undercut, dreadlocks, fade and taper, faux hawk, French crop, fringe, high fade, Ivy league, low fade, man braid, man bun, mid fade, military haircut, mohawk, pompadour, quiff, shaved sides, short back
Makeover (noun) an overall beauty treatment (involving a person’s hair style and cosmetics and clothing) intended to change or improve a person’s appearance. makeover(noun) a complete reconstruction and renovation of something.
Style My Hair
Try our virtual makeover tool. Browse through countless haircuts, hair styles, professional hair colours and effects to find the one your dreams. Have fun and share with your friends then simply show your L’Oréal Professionnel hairdresser to complete your make over in real life
A makeover is a radical change in appearance. When the word is used to describe a change in human physical appearance, it may imply a change in clothing, haircut, or cosmetics. A personal makeover might also include plastic surgery, dental veneers, or contact lenses. Sometimes a makeover is used to refer to non-physical things, such as a makeover of character, personality or attitude. It can also refer to a dramatic change in construction, such as when a building is renovated or is refurbished. Makeovers are usually referred to in a positive manner, as a way to start fresh or improve your life.
Makeovers are often popular television subjects. Long a staple subject of daytime talk shows, they have recently moved into the limelight in television shows such as Queer Eye. Other popular makeover shows include What Not to Wear, How to Look Good Naked, Extreme Makeover, MADE, Ambush Makeover and Pimp My Ride. There is also a category of reality TV based on giving makeovers to homes, such as Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, 60 Minute Makeover and Property Brothers.
Computer software and online tools can also be used for performing what are known as Virtual Makeovers. Using a photograph of a human face, software can apply cosmetics, hairstyles, and various eyewear such as contact lenses and sunglasses in order to allow users to visualize different looks without physically trying them on. Today, virtual makeup works in real-time using phone camera tracking, and examples are Visage Technologies’s MakeApp, L’Oreal‘s Makeup Genius, and Oriflame‘s Makeup Wizard.
In movies there is a common trope of a character, usually a girl, undergoing a dramatic makeover in appearance or personality. Here are some examples of movies with this trope.
- Now, Voyager (1942)
- Cinderella (1950)
- My Fair Lady (1964)
- Grease (1978)
- The Breakfast Club (1985)
- Clueless (1995)
- The Princess Diaries (2001)
- Mean Girls (2004)
- Go Short
- People may gasp and people may stare. This is exactly why chopping off your tresses is the most drastic way to go for a hair makeover. If you’ve had long hair your whole life, chances are that the ends have started to dry up, developed split ends, and look lifeless. Therefore, cutting them off and going for a short haircut will not only make you look edgy, but also help you grow out healthier hair.When it comes to styling your short hair, the possibilities are endless. You could go in for an adorable short bob or give in to your dauntless desires and go for a bold pixie cut. Getting an undercut is also a kickass way to look like a punk rock diva. But, if a more mature and professional style is what you’re going for, then a long angled bob will suit you perfectly. Just make sure that you discuss at length all your options and pick a style that will work well with your face shape and texture.
- Go Long
Gone are the days when you had to actually grow your hair out to get long hair. God bless the inventor of hair extensions because getting long hair has never been easier. Hair extensions work like magic in giving you the hair that you desire and make you look oh-so-feminine. If you want more of a long term style, you could go in for permanent hair extensions with real human hair that will last you a couple of months. But, if you would like to sport long hair just on a few special occasions, you can get your hands on temporary clip-in extensions that you can install yourself.
One thing you need to seriously consider if you do go in for permanent hair extensions (that can stay in your hair from anywhere between 6 weeks to 3 months) is that they’ll require a specific hair care routine provided to you by your stylist that you’ll need to follow carefully.
Changing your hair color is, by far, the best way to transform your hair completely. You can go a million different directions with the hair color of your choice and still not exhaust all your options. All you will need to keep in mind is that the color you choose goes well with your natural hair color, skin tone, and the color of your eyes.
For just a subtle tint of a fun color in your dark hair, you can go for a deep burgundy or auburn shade that may not look like much indoors but bursts to life when you step out into the sun. If depth and dimension arewhat you’re going for, then bright highlights, subtle lowlights, or a dramatic all-over balayage will fulfill your needs perfectly. You could also go totally funky and cool by going for an ombre in a bright and fun color like pink, green or blue!
The easiest way to give yourself a hair makeover without compromising on the length or color of your hair is to get some bangs cut into it. Bangs (or ‘fringe’, as they are also known) can frame your face beautifully and add a youthful vibe to your whole appearance. While straight cut blunt bangs are the epitome of Parisian chic, side swept bang
If you’re a curly haired girl like me and are befuddled over why your curls have no definition and look like a blob around your head, then you need to get your hair cut in layers. The staggered pattern in which layers are cut helps the curls unfurl in all their glory and look super defined. Even straight hair looks healthier and more voluminous when you get it cut in layers. The bottom line is that no matter what the texture of your hair, it will be elevated to another level of gorgeousness with a layered cut.will make you like the pretty girl-next-door
It is very important to consider the analysis of the clients natural hair features in order to design how to design your clients hair. The most important features to examine are wave pattern, growth pattern, texture and density. If the stylist does not suggest something more appropriate for the client’s style during the client consultation, the outcome could be disasterous. Art and the element of hair design are essential and cannot be overlooked. The cut, color, and the style must all keep the eye moving and the design sharp. Many times the cosmetologists have passed the hair experience in the hands of the client. It is our professional responsibility to educate the client in home care maintainence and styling options for home care. No matter how great the hair cut or the hair color, the client will often judge the stylist work by the finished product and how easy it is to maintain.
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