Shuchi Shrivastava * Pavan Paradkar
* Shuchi Shrivastava, Lecturer, Department of Textile Technology, Shri Vaishnav Polytechnic College, Indore (M.P.)
#Pavan Paradkar, Student, Department of Textile Technology, Shri Vaishnav Polytechnic College, Indore(M.P.)
Hazmat suits are needed to protect against harmful chemicals, cold and heat, during factories, agriculture, military operations in hospitals and sometimes for person working at home too. In the chemical explosions. The many requirements have led to the development of different types of protective clothing. The choice of protective clothing should be based on weight, level of protection, comfort and the degree of protection required. Below is an over view of protective clothing, which plays a very imp role in self- protection of a person from various hazards. Keywords: Protective Clothing, Hazards, Level of Protection, Selection Criteria
Scientific achievements in a variety of fields increase the quality and value of human life without doubt. However, in, it recognizes that technology development has large risks, unknown physical, chemical, and the risk of the influence of biological attacks. One of this relevance is a bio-terrorism and a mass destruction weapon of, in addition, we continue to expose to the risk of fire, chemicals, radiation and biological organisms such as bacteria and viruses. Fortunately, you can use protective measures from simple and effective most risks. The fabric constitutes an integral part of most protective equipment. Protection was manufactured in, as well as such as weaving, knitting and non-woven fabrics, as well as 3D weaving and human fibers using professional technology, such as weaving and weaving. Protection is the main part of the fiber classified as a current technology or industrial fabrics. Protective blends mean clothing and other manufactured items designed to protect the owner from severe environmental effects that can lead to injury or death . Today,risks we exposed are specialized that clothing would not be appropriate for protection. Extensive research is being conducted on the development of protective clothing for various regular and professional civilian and military occupations 1992; Holmes, 2000). The provision of protection to the public in the event of a catastrophe from a terrorist or biochemical attack is also taken seriously (Holmes, 2000; Leon, 1997).
Protective fabrics are the part of technical textiles defined by and include all textile-based products that are primarily used for work or functional properties that are not aestheticor decorative properties. Consumption of hazmat suits has increased linearly over the past 10 years, with an estimated 340,000 tones of hazmat suits consumed in 2010, 85% more than consumption in 1995. The Americas (mainly the United States and Canada) are the largest consumers of hazmat suits at about 91,300 tones, followed by Europe at 78,200 tones and Asia at 61,300 tones (David Associates,2004). All other regionsconsume only 7,200 tones, which is 3.0% of the total consumption of protective fabrics.
Classification of personal protective fabrics is complicated because classifications cannot clearly summarize all types of protection. Overlapping Definitions has different requirements for technologies and protection for the same kind of protection of many jobs and applications. Depending on the end of
use, individual protective fabrics, agricultural protection fiber, military protective fabrics,private protective fibers, medical protection fabrics, sports protection fabrics and spatial protection fabrics. Thermal (cold) protection, fire protection,chemical protection, exposure prevention, radiation protection,biological
protection, electrical protection and owner’s visibility can be further classified depending on the visibility of theowner.
Unless otherwise specified, this classification is used in the following description:
1. Heat and Cold Protection
The basic metabolism that takes place in our body produces heat, which can be life-saving or fatal, dependingonthe environment and atmosphere we are in. ±86°F) In summer, heat must be removed from metabolic activity as quickly as possible, and in winter, methods must be found to prevent heat loss, especially in extremelycold conditions. Thermal stress, defined as a situation in which the body is unable to dissipate excess heat into the environment, is a serious problem, especially during physical exertion. Richardson and Capra, 2001;
Basically, it is delivered to a combination of conductivity, convection, radiant heat , or these modules, dependingonthe heat source where the atmosphere of the heat source is located and the protection of the heat is available. Heat Exchange is at least one of these modes is an increase in the fiber speed (6) to reduce at least one mode and heat protection function or to protect heat transfer. For conductive heat heat, the tissue thickness and density of the tissue are major considerations, because the traps between the fibers have the lowest thermal conductivity of all the materials. It is important thatprotection (especially flame flames) for fox heat is important. Fire fabric properties are important. Regarding the radiationradiation heat, the tissue is electrically conductive electricityas well as metalized tissue, as well as high surface reflection as well as high surface reflection, Metalized fabricssuch as those are preferred. Ideal garments for protection against heat transfer are fabrics with heat adapting properties.Phase change material (PCM) is one such example where it can absorb heat in a hot environment and enter a high-energy phase, but reverse the process to release heat in a cold environment.
2. Chemical Protection
Fortunately, most protections do not participate in the process of dangerous and toxic chemicals because prevention cannot provide complete insulationfor chemicals. Recently, the chemical industry was faced with the original regulatory degree to avoid staff exposed to chemical risks. Chemical Protection Clothing (CPC) should consider the last protective line in chemical exploitation, and if possible, to develop and implementhazardous chemicals, which are less than hazardous chemicals, you must be tilted. Or removal of contacts with chemical risks. Chemical protective clothing can be divided into encapsulated and non-encapsulated depending on the wearing style. Encapsulation systems cover the whole body and includerespiratory protection and are commonly used where high chemical protection is required. Leak-Proof Clothing is assembled as separate components and the Respiratory System is not part of the CPC. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)classifies protective clothing from highest to normal protection based on protection level. The CPC corresponds to four levels of protection, levels A, B, C and D, from highest protection to general protection. European standard for CPC: is based on “types” of clothing based on testing for all clothing, is classified as types 1 to 7 depending on the type of exposure to CPC tight, leak-tight, etc. (Carroll, 2001). Traditionally used disposables are also resistant to a wide range of chemicals, and some disposables canberepaired with adhesive patches and reused prior to disposal Chemicals in liquid form are used more oftenthansolid chemicals. Therefore, chemical protective clothing must be waterproof or impervious to liquids.
Another important function of a chemical protective suit is to protect them from airborne chemicals such as toxic and toxic gases present in the air or fumes, dust and microbes from vehicles. Safety masks containing activated carbon particles capable of absorbing dust present in the atmosphere are commonly used to protect against air pollution.
3. Fire Protection
Humans could not survive without the use of fire in the primitive age of, However, fire can be dangerous. Fires oftenoccur, with non-fatal consequences. Of the incidental fires in residential, occupied buildings, and outdoor fires, the majority of(79% of total deaths in 1986) resulted from fires in homes, but only 16%of fires occurred in residential buildings The materials most commonly ignited were textiles, particularly upholstery and furniture However, it should be noted that the main cause of fire deaths is not direct combustion, but asphyxiation from the smoke and toxic gases emitted during combustion. In the UK, 50%of 4, fire deaths were directly related to this cause Therefore, the use of non-toxic or low-toxic combustible materials is very important for fire prevention.
Protection belonging to protection from flames should be, that is, a firefighter, and a heat barrier must be formed. The latter is a very important factor in if the owner must remain near a spark for a long time. In fact, 75%is the risk of burning to the part of the body covered with a garment that shows that there is a hand and face (Holmes, 2000). Flame meter clothing is generally used in class uniforms (Holmes, 2000). Government rules and security issues are increasing, with children sleeping,carpets, stable organizations and bedding, 2stable, and clothing and household fibers are required. The use of proprietary flame retardant materials such as Kevlar and Nomex, flame retardant coatings, or a combination of these methods are commonly used to make garments and textiles flame retardant.
Waterproof Fabrics, a closely woven fabric, fine porousmembrane and coating, hydrophilic membrane and coating combination, fine porous and hydrophilic membranes and coatings, and combinations of coatings. Technology is constantly developed in the production process, increasing the properties of the material of the film and the coating, and improves the size of the pores and the size of the distribution, and improve the properties of the hydrophilic. Development of robust membranes, and new technologies in various applications (e.g., smart fabrics). Nanotechnology is used for fabric engineer , which respells water and oil without prejudice for natural respiratory and fabric comfort