Fig.: Jute Spinning

The jute fibre is a natural fibre. The fibre which is obtained from the bast layer of the plants Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius is called jute. It is one kind of cellulosic fibre. Jute is also called as “Golden Fibre”. Jute fibre is used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing material for tufted carpets.

Spinning is the first steps of textile product processing. The process of making yarn from the textile fibre is called spinning. There are various types of spinning methods for producing various types of yarns. If we notice, we will see that the Jute Fibres are converted into fine yarn, hessian yarn, carpet yarn, sacking yarn and jute blended yarn depending on the end use of the yarn. For producing this type of jute yarn different spinning methods/process are used.

There are two types of jute spinning process. They are:

1. Sliver spinning
2. Roving spinning

1. Sliver Spinning: In sliver spinning, yarn is produced from the sliver of finisher drawing frame. Sliver spinning is used for majority of jute yarn.

2. Roving Spinning: In roving spinning, yarn is produced from roving sliver of roving frame. By this spinning process finer and superior quality jute yarn can be produced. In this spinning process after passing through three drawing frame, sliver are converted into rove by a roving frame and after that a spinning frame is used to produce yarn.


 Fig.: Jute Spinning

 Jute yarn manufacturing process flowchart:

Jute spinning can be classified in five divisions. They are: Batching, Carding, Drawing, Spinning, Winding. They are the main process, either there are sub process to manufacture jute yarn. There are two types of yarn are produced from jute spinning; sacking yarn and hessian yarn. The manufacturing process of raw jute are mentioned below.

Flow Chart of Raw Jute Spinning Process

Fig.: Flow Chart of Raw Jute Spinning Process

Jute gradePercentage
Tossa – C60%
White – X30%
Mesta – c10%

 Batching Section:
Different types of batch for different count

Batch for Hessian warp (8.25 Ibs per spindles) the batch is given bellow:

Jute grade Percentage
Tossa – C30%
White  – X50%
 White  -c20%

 Batch for Hessian Weft (8.5 Ibs per spindles)

Jute gradepercentage
Hard jute60%
Soft jute40%

 Batch selection for Sacking warp (count 10.25 lbs/ spyndle)-

 Emulsion Section:

What is emulsion:
Emulsion is a mixture of some lubricating agents which is applied on jute fibre to make the fibre soften and flexible for spinning; prepared for spun.

An emulsion is an intimate mixture of two immiscible liquids where one is dispersed in small globules on the other and addition of a third substance brings stability. Emulsion is made by splitting up oil into minute drops which are prevented from reuniting in water.
Basic ingredients of an emulsion :


Mineral oil and


The reasons why emulsion is used are given below:-

To make the jute fibre soft.

To increase flexibility.

To reduce fibre stiffness and brittleness.

To increase cohesiveness of fibre.

Recipe for Emulsion:-



Fig. Emulsion Making


Emulsifier and equal quantity of mineral oil are placed in the mixing tang. Adding remaining oil then add water and mixed for a period of time. Then transferring to the reserve tank to supply next machine

Softening Section: 

After preparing emulsion it is applied on the fibre by softener or spreader machine. The discussion is here about softener machine. The figure and function of softener machine are given below-


The long jute fibres are fed on the machine by feed rollers.

Gripping and beating the fibres by spirally fluted rollers.

Emulsion is sprayed after passing one third portion of the fluted roller zone.

The fibres are delivered through delivery roller and delivery sheet.


 Fig.: Passage Diagram of Softening Machine

Deeping System: Why it is used?

It is a system developed by the authority of BJM by means of which the cuttings portion of the long jute fibre are slightly sink into the emulsion before feeding the fibres in softener machine so that a large amount of emulsion can be applied to the cuttings portion of the fibre and make it more flexible.

Fig.: Deeping System

 Pilling Section:

Definition of Pilling:

It is the process by which emulsion applied long jute fibres are kept under a thick fabric for a certain time as a result fibre become soft and flexible. Depending on fibre quality the pilling time is varied.

Assumption of pilling assembly:- 19 ft*5.5 ft*6 ft

Fig.: Pilling

Carding Section:
Carding is the process by which long strikes of jute fibres, while passing through high speed pinned rollers, are broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in roll form of uniform weight per unit length.

Breaker Card:

Fig.: Breaker Card

Machine Information:

Delivery rate=600 kg /hr Dollop weight =34 lbs , Clock length=13 yards , Clock rotation=360 degree , Draft=6 , Sliver weight /100 yards=18 lbs, Surface speed of different rollers, Surface speed of cylinder =3935 ft/minute, Surface speed of pin feed roller =22.5 ft/min, Surface speed of worker =70.61 ft/min, Surface speed of stripper =81.7 ft/min, Surface of doffer =192 ft/minute, Surface of Delivery roller =268.13 ft/minute


Finisher Card:

Fig.: Finisher Card

Machine Information:

Doubling=11:1 Draft=10.6, Delivery=400-450 kg/h Finisher roll weight /100 yards=16 lbs,

Surface speed of different rollers, SS of stripper=398.48 ft/min SS of worker=54.39 ft/min,

SS of doffer=103.389 ft/min SS of cylinder=2388.6 ft/min, SS of feed stripper=34.33 ft/min, SS of top drawing roller=117.20 ft/min, SS of bottom drawing roller=123.21 ft/min, SS of front delivery roller=128.85 ft/min


Drawing Section:
After above these process drawing & doubling is done.


Fig.: Jute 1st Drawing Frame                                Fig.: Jute 1st Drawing Machine



Fig.: Jute 2nd Drawing Frame                             Fig.: Jute 2nd Drawing Machine


Fig.: Jute 3rd Drawing Frame                                      Fig.: Jute 3rd  Drawing Machine

JUTE Ring Spinning Frame:
Finally we get jute yarn from spinning frame.

Fig.: Jute Yarn



Article by Ms. Hetal Mistry

B.Sc. Textile and Apparel Designing Department from Sir Vithaldas Thackersey College of Home Science (Autonomous), SNDT Women’s University – Juhu

Trainee Intern : Textile Value Chain

References :

Author: Millionaires