The main point of her argument was that three mega-regional trading blocs—North America, the European Union (EU), and ASEAN-East Asia—were rapidly concentrating world trade in goods.

Additionally, in the first two, “selective and exclusionary trade policies,” which appear to be in opposition to the most-favored-nation (MFN) principle of the WTO, were gaining ground at the expense of developing and least developed countries in response to growing US-China trade conflicts, the Covid pandemic, the war in Ukraine, and climate change concerns. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Regional Comprehensive Economic