India for ages in textile world is well known only as a spinning country and so naturally for years the textile machinery segment has seen great demand from the spinning sector only which has resulted in the growth of market for machinery suppliers from India as well abroad.
Recently the importance of value addition, low investments & huge returns in other sectors like weaving & garmenting has comprehended the entrepreneurs to develop integrated plants & look beyond just yarns. The weaving industry of India is still controlled by the unorganized sector. India manufactures only 5% of cloth through organized sector, 20% through Handloom sector, 15% through knitting sector and 60% is produced through decentralized power loom sector.
From 2013-14 to 2015-16 the import of weaving machineries has increased with a CAGR of 13%. In 2015-16 India imported weaving machineries worth US$ 495.2Mn. The imports in 2017 have slightly reduced due to latest Indian financial reforms. As per fig 1 there is considerable increase by almost 30% in exports of weaving machineries.
In 2016-17 textile machineries worth Rs. 6650 Cr were produced in India. Spinning machineries alone constituted 54% of share. Whereas weaving accounts for a mere share of 14%.
The weaving industry in India is bifurcated by three major technology and those are handloom, powerloom & automatic/ shuttleless loom. In the weaving machinery manufacturing sector, India is hardly having any presence in shuttleless weaving machinery manufacturing. The machinery manufacturing operation takes place at the organized and the unorganized levels. In the organized sector, in addition to the public limited companies, manufacturing of machineries is done in independent units, which have collaborative joint ventures with the foreign entities. In the decentralized sector, there are small-scale industrial units as well as tiny units engaged in the production of handlooms, powerlooms & accessories pertaining to the textile machinery. Around 87 per cent of the total production, i.e., textile machinery is coming from the six clusters namely Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Ludhiana, Mumbai and Surat. These clusters are strategically located to serve the textile industry and have the affiliation to produce the kind of machinery required by the industry.Majority of the production of loom comes from Ahmedabad, so it is known as cluster of weaving.
The powerloom industry is equipped with approximately 2.701 million registered looms producing 54,000 sq. mtr fabrics, which are concentrated in clusters across Erode, Salem, Madurai, Ichalkarnaji, Solapur, Bhiwandi, Bhilwara and Malegaon, among others. Powerloom sector contributes to 57 per cent of the total cloth production and more than 60 per cent of fabric meant for export
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
Manufacturing of Airjet & rapier technology weaving machineries is completely absent. Other shuttleless looms like waterjet manufactured in India provide very low productivity and are currently not able to compete with technological advances and high productivity provided by other international players. The major drawback in terms of manufacturing the weaving machineries is the lack of technical knowhow. Indian players for years were involved only in manufacturing conventional machines & somehow till date have not been able to cope up with the tremendous technological advance that the sector has witnessed. In local market the major strength of Indian players could have been only the cost effectiveness however due to penetration from Chinese manufacturers the opportunity is diminished. In case of shuttleless weaving machines the manufacturing cost is almost equally divided in three parts namely technological components, accessories & sheet metal hence there is hardly margin for any new Indian player to start manufacturing weaving looms in India the other factor is that the total demand of shuttleless looms was negligible.
OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS
Having a textile culture and one of the renowned countries in textile trade, there are millions of opportunities in machinery manufacturing sector especially the untapped sector like weaving machinery manufacturing. We need to focus more on Research & Development (R&D) to manufacture high standard textile machinery which is required for our own consumption, so that we can reduce imports. Due to our strategic location, we can also explore possibilities of exporting appropriate technology to other developing countries like Bangladesh, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, etc.
Nowadays, there is an upward trend in inquiries for advanced weaving machines from weavers of technical fabrics. Though Indian machinery industry is currently having strong presence in spinning & processing sector, we have not at all explored the big opportunities in manufacturing weaving machines. The growing demands of fabric all across the world will make weaving as a booming sector in coming years.
The recent boost to manufacturing through the make in India initiative will also act as a catalyst towards this growth. Low material costs and operating costs along with our own huge market will give India an edge over other countries. The major threat as far as the weaving machinery manufacturing is concerned is the research & technical knowledge. So it is necessary that we strategize & invest in R& D. Our education pattern should develop research and innovation based concepts for Textile Engineering students so that the real growth happens within our country.
Indian weaving industry can be bifurcated into 3 segments, powerloom, handloom & automatic/ shuttleless loom.. The powerloom industry is equipped with approximately 2.701 million registered looms producing 54,000 sq. mtr fabrics, which are concentrated in clusters across Erode, Salem, Madurai, Ichalkarnaji, Solapur, Bhiwandi, Bhilwara and Malegaon, among others For Handloom there are 35 government recognized clusters in 19 states. UP is one of the largest handloom driven industry having 4 handloom clusters namely Barabanki, Varanasi, Mubarakpur & Bijnore with 20,000, 80,000, 5000 & 7000 handlooms. West Bengal is having 3 clusters located at Phulia, Bisnupur & Burdwan with 3200, 1324 & 37500 handlooms. The Burdwan is recognized for its Tangail Naksapar Sarees & Jamdani sarees with jacquard designs. Tamil Nadu is having two clusters called kancheepuram & Salem. The kancheepuram cluster from Tamil nadu having 7000 handlooms is the origin for the popular Kancheepuram saree’s & since 2005 it is protected by a geographical indication label for certifying their origin. Salem is having 8,192 handlooms. In Andhra Pradesh, Chirala, Dharmvaram & Mangalgiri are the 3 clusters having 5000, 1200 & 663 number of handlooms. These clusters are famous for silk saree’s, dress materials, lungi’s, stoles & scarfs. The clusters in Assam are famous for muga silk saree’s, eri silk dress materials, dupatta’s, stoles, scarves, cushion covers & home furnishing. The Bijoynagar cluster has 7500 handlooms located in south kamrup district of Assam & Sualkuchi is a multi-caste town under Guwahati subdivision of kamrup district of Assam having 40,000 handloom clusters. Bhagalpur cluster in Bihar is having around 70,000 handlooms with 30,000 weavers which produces Bhagalpur sarees, dress materials & home furnishings. Champa in Chhattisgarh is having 300 handlooms & is famous for producing kosa silk saree’s. In Gujarat Patan & Bhuj are the two handloom clusters having 49 & 500 handloom respectively. The Bhuj is well known for its woolen shawls & stoles. Kullu in Himanchal Pradesh produces geometrical design patterns with multicolor effect in twill tapestry weaving technique without using any textile software or devices for the designs. They prefer the use of vegetable dyes as an added organic touch to their designs. The kullu cluster is having 20,000 weavers & around 6500 handlooms. The warm & artistic pashmina shawls & raffal shawls are produced at Srinagar cluster in Kashmir having 582 handlooms. The popular Kani shawls, scarfs & jamawar are produced in Kanihama cluster located in Jammu & Kashmir with 250 handlooms. Bhagaiya cluster in Jharkhand is influenced by the art work of Bhagalpur cluster having 1500 handlooms. Molakalmuru sarees in Karnataka are produced in Molakalmuru district having 1500 handlooms. In Kerala there are 2 handloom clusters namely Balrampuram with 16000 handlooms & Kannur with 6000 handlooms. The Balrampuram is famous for the contemporary cloth wearing styles of Kerala. The weavers here use a primitive type of throw shuttle pit looms for the production of exclusively cotton fabrics with pure zari. Maheshwari cluster in Madhya Pradesh is having 2449 handlooms producing fabrics inspired from the art work on the forts in Madhya Pradesh mainly including stripes, checks & floral pattern. The Paithani cluster in Maharashtra with 350 handlooms is world famous for their paithani barcode designs and the art needs minimum 2 months to an year for completing a single saree. Imphal in Manipur is another region having highest concentration of handlooms constituting 2276 handlooms comprising of only female workers. Orissa is another handloom dominated state having 7,518 handlooms in Bargarh, 1725 handlooms in Sonepur & 2183 handlooms in Nuapatna. The renowned Sambalpuri Sarees are produced here. They use the IKAT i.e tie & dye technique. Kota in Rajasthan is having 1858 handlooms. As the name suggest the “Kota dori” saree is the produced at this cluster. Pochampally in Andhra Pradesh with 2000 handlooms is also having prominent IKAT designs.
INTEGRATED TEXTILES PARK NEWS
In order to assist the textile industry for setting up world class state of art infrastructure, increasing investments, generating employment opportunities, boosting exports & improvising the delivery times the government has announced subsidy for assistance in setting up textile parks in major textile hubs. These parks will contain all common facilities & infrastructure like compound wall, roads, drainage, water supply, electricity supply including captive power plant, common effluent treatment plant, and telecommunication lines. It will also contain buildings for common facilities like testing laboratory, design center, training center, trade center/display center, ware-housing facility/ raw material depot, packaging unit, crèche, canteen, workers’ hostel, offices of service providers, labor rest and recreation facilities, marketing support system (backward / forward linkages) etc & also factory building for production purposes. As on 2017 a total 66 textile parks projects are sanctioned by Ministry of textile out of which 19 parks are completed & 47 parks project is under implementation. The government of Maharashtra recently announced that it is also planning to set up nine textile parks in the northern cotton-growing regions of the state. These parks will help to supplement farmers income through value-added products.
The textile parks are being developed in 14 textile focused states namely Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, & Assam. In the state of Maharashtra there are 14 textile parks being developed.
In order to create a complete value chain textile parks will certainly help and boost the industry. Indian textile ministry needs to give benefits to all realistic investors who are working in this value chain..
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