Abstract 

India is one of the leading cultivators of cotton due to its climatic conditions and geographical location. Use of cotton in India dates to the ancient times and its production was progressed majorly during the 1st World War. Cotton production contributes a lot to the Indian economy. There are various advancements occurring in cotton industry and Naturally Colored Cotton is one of them.

Introduction

India has always been one of the leading cottons producing nations in the world. Cotton was much more thanjust a fiber or a fabric. It was a symbol of patriotism during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’, an emotion of warmth of your grandmother’s saree, it is an elegant intricacy of ‘Chikankari’, and a lot more than just a fiber. It is the livelihood of millions of people employed across the country including farmers who cultivate this non-edible crop. Cotton is not just a fiber, it is the white gold that is used for weaving tales, histories, and development in India.

Cotton is a Kharif crop, that requires 6-8 months to develop. The gathering and planting season of harvests contrast in various districts, contingent on the environment conditions. It is planted in April-May and reaped in December-January before the colder time of year.  For planting, it requires high-temperature soil.

The cotton area in India is viewed as the second most created area in the material business (after man-made filaments). At 18% of the worldwide aggregate, India is the world’s biggest maker of cotton. It additionally has the biggest territory under cotton development on the planet, addressing about 25% of the world’s region under development. The provinces of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu are the significant cotton creating territories in India.

Why is India among the top producers of cotton in the world?

India’s geographical location is one of the important reasons why agriculture is a major occupation in this country. Weather conditions and soil are perfect for crop cultivation throughout the country. India is accepted to be the first home of the cotton plant. Presently, Cotton possesses about 4.7 percent of the absolute edited region in the country.

Cotton has a wide scope of soil transformation and is developed on incredibly assorted soil types. Notwithstanding, a profound (>60 cm), friable, all around depleted and fruitful soil is generally reasonable. Silty earth to mud soils is the awesome. Accordingly, best return of cotton is generally acquired on alluvial soils. Soils in the pH goes from 5 to 8 and CaCO3 substance of under 10% in pull zone are appropriate for cotton development. Exceptionally calcareous soils with more than 30 % free CaCO3 may cause phosphorus obsession and micronutrient inadequacy. It is by and large considered as genuinely lenient to saltiness.

Being a profound established harvest, soil profundity is additionally a significant factor and shallow soils are not appropriate in vertosols and related soil areas. It is raised primarily as a rainfed crop in the dark cotton and medium soils and as a flooded yield in the alluvial soils. Alluvial soils (overwhelming in the northern territories of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh), Red sandy topsoils to topsoil’s (found in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) and Laterite soils (found in pieces of Assam, Tamil Nadu and Kerala) are a portion of the dominating kinds of soil on which the yield is developed. Cotton is a tropical or sub-tropical yield filled in semi-parched spaces of the country (fundamentally in the Deccan Level).

Hard ice is damaging to cotton development and it needs in any event 210 ice free days. Just light precipitation (50 to 100 centimeters) is liked. Cotton can likewise be developed under flooded conditions. It requires high temperature and brilliant daylight for its development. Cotton requires a reasonable sky during the blooming stage. A light very much depleted soil equipped for holding dampness is obviously appropriate for the development of the yield. Dark cotton soil is liked. India’s geographical location meets all the requirements mentioned above. Cotton is also a drought resistant crop; thus, it is majorly cultivated in India (1).

What is Naturally Colored Cotton?

Cotton that has been developed to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of current commercial cotton fibers AZ is known as naturally colored cotton. Red, green, and various shades of brown are among the colors that can be found. The natural color of the cotton does not fade. Yields are usually smaller, and the fiber is shorter and thinner than the more widely available “white” cotton, but it has a smoother feel.

This type of cotton is often smoother on the skin (this is a subjective assertion that needs to be verified) and has a good odor. Natural colored cotton is still uncommon since it needs advanced harvesting techniques and equipment, which makes it more costly to harvest than white cotton. Most colored cotton landraces or cultivars grown in Africa, Asia, Central and South America had been replaced by all-white commercial varieties by the 1990s. Cotton with natural colors is thought to have originated in the Andes about 5000 years ago. Today, most of the naturally colored cotton comes from pre-Columbian stocks produced by South American indigenous peoples (Vreeland, 1999) (4). Latest?

The Old World Asiatic diploid cottons are attempted to begin sooner than New World allotetraploid cottons. Hued assortments were known in diploid cottons and were under development in Asia, especially Indian subcontinent, China, and Focal Asian Republics of previous Soviet Association since long.

In India, earthy colored linted assortments of tree cotton (G. arboreum L.) to be specific Cocanada 1, Cocanada 2 and Red Northerns were under business development basically on dark soils under rainfed condition in pieces of Andhra Pradesh. Red linted types were overwhelming and high in interest for their better coloring characteristics and shading speed. Nonetheless, the circumstance has changed with the progression and normalization of coloring methods. Development of shaded cotton was debilitate and nearly deserted in the last 50% of this century. Shaded linted assortments couldnot stay well known with cultivators, principally due to low efficiency per unit territory, poor fiber qualities and non-consistency of shadings. Need of great importance was to expand cotton creation to meet the essential prerequisites of truly expanding populace for apparel.

With the headway of turning and preparing innovations, ease in bestowing fluctuated medicines of shades and tones during handling uniquely with the coming of engineered colors, more prominent accentuation was given underway of high yielding cotton with prevalent fiber quality, which brought about the substitution of hued cotton by white linted types. However, development of shaded cottons proceeded in segregated pockets as curiosity specialty cotton and for tasteful reason. As of late shaded cottons are accepting expanding significance considering their eco-friendly character. The mindfulness about the harmfulness and contamination brought about by manufactured colors have restored the interest in development of natural cotton. The inclination for eco-accommodating cotton must be satisfied ideally by naturally developed hued cotton, administering unsafe synthetics in passing on also, preparing? (4).Looks incomplete

Benefits of Naturally Colored Cotton

There are a few benefits of normally shaded over the white cotton assortments. These are momentarily examined underneath:

  • Impact on Human Wellbeing

Cotton textures with counterfeit colors have been accounted for, to effect sly affect the skin and human wellbeing.  Fake colors have antagonistic impact on their wellbeing. There is hazard of skin disease among the people who consistently interact with fake colors. The majority of colors utilized in material businesses are cancer-causing. Counterfeit colors cause hypersensitivity and tingling on the skin and in some cases may cause skin malignant growth. In cotton processes, a few workers interact with counterfeit colors.The texture arranged from normally shaded cotton build up, is liberated from such antagonistic impacts. There is no need of utilizing counterfeit colors when the texture is produced from normally shaded cotton. Such texture can be securely utilized even by those having delicate skin. Hence, texture made from hued cotton has been discovered to be the awesome human wellbeing.

  • Impact on Climate

Different counterfeit colors are being utilized for coloring of fabric produced from the white buildup. After coloring, the substance deposits through coloring or completing affluents are tossed in close by waterway tainting water and soil. This structure a significant wellspring of ecological contamination. At the point when the texture is produced from normally shaded build up, there is no need of counterfeit colors. In this manner utilization of normally shaded cotton helps in diminishing ecological contamination brought about by fake colors.

  • Impact on cost of texture creation

The coloring cycle adds to the expense of creation of texture. The coloring interaction is excluded when normally hued build up is utilized for assembling of the texture. Along these lines the expense of creation of texture can be diminished somewhat using normally hued cotton. On the off chance that the hued cotton is followed through on greater expense than white cotton, at that point the decrease in the expense of creation of texture brought about by overlooking coloring measure is repaid by exorbitant cost of shaded cotton texture.

Impediments ofshaded cotton, normally hued cottons have some natural downsides. These are: low yield potential, poor fiber properties, restricted tones, flimsiness of shadings, defilement of white cotton, low market request, and absence of promoting offices according to Specialized Release from CICR (www.cicr.org.in) 8 Normally Hued Cotton.

  • Low Yield Potential

The yield capability of right now accessible shaded cotton genotypes is low. The yield potential is practically 50% of the white linted assortments. In light of low yield potential, normally shaded cotton could not get mainstream for business development. At the end of the day, low yield capability of normally shaded cotton has gone about as an obstruction in the development of its development. Its development has been restricted to little pockets in ancestral territories as it were.

  • Helpless Fiber properties

The fiber of normally hued cotton genotypes, contrasted and white cotton, is of very inferior quality. Normally hued cottons are generally more limited in staple length, more fragile in fiber strength and have low micronaire esteem. They likewise have low fiber development compared to white cottons. There is need to improve fiber properties of hued cotton, especially fiber solidarity to make it appropriate for high velocity turning.

  • Restricted Tones

Normally hued cotton genotypes at present accessible in the germplasm have restricted build up colors. There are just two tones for example earthy colored in different shades and green. With just two colors, normally hued cotton cannot contend with white cotton as shifted medicines of tones and shades can be effectively granted to white cotton.

  • Shakiness of tones

The shade of normally hued cotton isnot steady and enduring. In daylight, the green shading blurs more rapidly than earthy colored tone. Earthy colored tone likewise blurs yet at a lethargic rate. The green build up, which is presented to daylight turns out to be nearly white and the bit which is covered with the pod ( at the lower part of the locule) stays dull green.

  • Tainting

Common build up shading is represented by predominant/inadequate prevailing qualities. The green shading is constrained by one quality and earthy colored tone with at least two qualities. Cotton is a regularly cross-pollinated crop. In common conditions, cross fertilization happens to the reach out of 5-20 percent. Developing of hued and white cotton in the area will upgrade the opportunity of tainting of white linted genotypes with shaded genotypes and the other way around.

Tainting may happen in three different ways, viz. (1) through common outcrossing with white cotton, (2) during ginning, and (3) during delinting. Developing of white cotton in the field in which shaded cotton was filled in the earlier year may likewise prompt tainting through volunteers. Consequently, development of hued cotton ought to be confined to little zones as it were. Besides, research work on hued cotton ought to be confined to just hardly any examination communities to stay away from defilement of white cotton.

  • Low Market Interest

There is exceptionally restricted interest of normally hued cottons in India. In the last not many a long time, the interest of normally hued cotton has expanded in some European nations, which is around 5-6 lakh parcels for each annum. Hoping to low interest, it is alluring to limit development of shaded cottons to restricted zones and to enrolled cultivators as it were. This will serve to Specialized Announcement from CICR (www.cicr.org.in) 9 Normally Hued Cotton deflect the conceivable misfortune to the cultivators, perhaps because of its over creation and exceptionally less or no market interest.

  • Absence of Advertising Offices

There is absence of appropriate showcasing for the offer of normally shaded cotton. It is important to create advertising offices prior to beginning development of hued cotton on business scale. There ought to be composed arrangement between the buyer and the maker for creation of normally shaded cotton (4).

Limitations of Naturally Colored Cotton

The normally hued cotton has a little fiber and is not appropriate for weighty machine turning.  The green and earthy colored cotton plants yielded too little build up that was too short in staple length. Because of more modest fiber, it becomes unconventional to utilize normally hued cotton for attire producers. Yet, presently, hued cotton is in a real sense pressed in with the traditional white cotton to make its fiber longer and more grounded than other normally shaded cotton to be utilized in commonplace weavers. Since this mixture cotton fiber is more grounded, it is being utilized by Levi’s, L.L. Bean, Eileen Fisher, and Fieldcrest for garments like khakis (3).

References

  1. https://www.agricultureinindia.net/cultivation/cotton-cultivation/cotton-cultivation-how-to-cultivate-cotton-in-india-a-guide-for-farmers/19726
  2. https://www.investindia.gov.in/team-india-blogs/cotton-textile-industry-india#:~:text=The%20first%20cotton%20mill%20in%20India%20was%20established,and%20was%20named%20Bombay%20Spinning%20and%20Weaving%20Company.
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturally_colored_cotton
  4. http://www.cicr.org.in/pdf/naturally_colored_cotton.pdf

Author – Kshipra Gadey,  Textile Value Chain