In todays’ time wool industry has gone global as Australia, Argentina, the United States, and New Zealand are the major suppliers of wool. The largest consumer of wool fabric is the United States, Australia is that the biggest supplier and Australian wool accounts for about one-fourth of the world’s production.
What for centuries was a little home-based craft has grown into a serious industry. The yearly global count is now estimated at 5.5 billion pounds. Though cotton is the highest used plant for fabrics and therefore the favourite fiber overall, the amount one source for animal fibre remains wool.
Wool is generated from sheep which are usually shorn once a year (some breeds are shorn twice a year, and there’s some sheep that shed their hair naturally like other animals).

  • Important wool characteristics are:

Diameter: (in today’s time mostly measured in micron – that’s one thousandths of a millimetre)
Crimp: (the “zig-zagging” form of one fibre) – fine wools are usually  crimpier than coarse wools
quantity of grease (Merino and its crossbreeds have a lot greasy fleeces)
average fibre length (in cm or inch)
Colour: Whether the fleece consists of 1 reasonably fibre (as for many breeds) or whether the sheep is double-coated, i.e. includes a fine undercoat and coarse outer hair. that’s the case for a few “primitive” breeds like Soay, Heidschnucken or Ouessant.
These characteristics are more important than the breed. The breed allows to draw general conclusions on wool quality (Merino is mostly short and fine, English Leicester is coarse and long). But within the end it is the quality of the individual fleece that counts. Especially within the case of meat breeds the standard varies lots from one animal to the subsequent. top notch wool is found on meat sheep – it’s just the matter of pick and chooses!

Mohair

Mohair is the hair from the Angora goat. Mohair is extremely glossy, very strong, has practically no crimp (it’s alleged to form locks within the fleece), very smooth and really long – albeit Angora goats are shorn twice a year. Because the fibres are so slippery, they’re pretty difficult to spin, in spite of the good length. Mohair is additionally heavier than wool. it’s therefore recommended to blend Mohair with wool to induce a more light-weight garment and fibres that are easier to spin.

  • Spinning in the Grease:
    The term “In the grease” directly defines greasy wool. When you feel this wool it can feel oily or maybe sticky. The substance that produces this feel  is named lanolin.

 

  • What is the purpose lanolin?

Lanolin is well known for its moisturizing properties and is used as an  ingredient in many natural products including lip balms, creams, salves, and lotions. The purpose of lanolin is to guard sheep’s skin and wool against the weather in nature. Lanolin can account for up to 25% of the load of a greasy fleece, wishing on the breed of sheep. The amount of lanolin produced in every sheep varies as some have more and some have less. Lanolin content is often more in Merino and other fine wool breeds as compared to other primitive or long wool breeds of sheep.
Lanolin is also has a useful property is that it makes fiber waterproof, which helps keep you warmer when wearing wool within the rain.
Just as the lanolin keeps the sheep from getting too chilled by wet, cold, fiber – it does an equivalent for knit outerwear. This is one among the explanations that a lot of spinners will prefer to spin their wool “in the grease”.

 

  • Lanolin feels good to spin:

A few spinners just love the texture of this wool and like to spin it within the grease and  then wash the yarn after it’s been spun. It is just a matter of preference. For experience Beginners should try spinning a yarn straight from the fleece. They should try comparing the difference between a yarn that needs to spun from the already washed fleece, and one that has been spun in the grease from that same fleece and washed afterwards.

A lot of spinners claim that, as their hand-spun yarn will be soaked and  then to set the twist after spinning anyway, washing out the lanolin alongside this twist-setting step saves a lot of time.

When choosing a wool for spinning within the grease, try to get the one that has been coated. This means the sheep wore a light-weight coat while growing the wool, which has kept most of the hay and substance from stepping into their fleece. A greasy fleece that’s filled with substance will end in a greasy yarn filled with substance .

The use of clean wool has to be done on  processing equipment
This is a simple way to make sure the equipment is clean. Washing a drum carder with lanolin is mostly impossible, so a lot of the time when spinning “in the grease” spinning will be done straight from the locks unless the spinner has a specific set of combs or hand cards that they use only for raw wool. Spinning wool in the grease won’t cause any damage to the spinning wheel.

 

  • Scouring raw wool:
  • If the wool is too greasy, spinners can scour it (soak it in very hot water without soap) to take off some of the grease while still saving the water resistant qualities of the yarn.Next step is to  add soap to the wash to pull out a good amount of the lanolin.

In case spinners don’t like the texture of the greasy yarn after it has been spun, they wash it gently in hot very soapy water and are able to take out nearly all the lanolin.

  • Here are some advantages of working with the Raw Fleece:

A lot of hand-spinners do not like to work with raw fleece, and that’s perfectly fine. But there’s something exceptional about processing even a couple of ounces of unwashed wool—you connect with art of hand-spinning and the raw fibres more intensely. These are only a few of the advantages:

  1. Learn about spinning from an actual sheep. In case you process the whole fleece, it helps to understand which of its parts work best for hand-spinning.
  2. Better realize how different fiber preparations calls for different hand-spinning techniques: drafting methods, amount and angle of twist, and finishing can all change.
  3. Gain almost total control over the materials. We make many choices once we work with commercial fiber, but with wool, we make ALL the choices .
  4. This actually made us perceive how long it took our foremothers to form any wool clothing before the economic Revolution. A lot of fiber prep tasks require little skill, so small children and unmarried women (spinsters) hand out to the household by making fiber for hand-spinning.
  5. Lanolin makes hands really soft!
  • Preparing Wool for Hand-spinning

The vast price difference between raw wool off the sheep and a ball of wool in the store is caused by the amount of work that goes into the ball of wool. On the sheep wool is rather inconvenient , which is why they try so much to breed sheep that have good meat but shed their hair naturally, the helps to avoid shearing.
many spinners have nothing to do with shearing, even though it would be a nice idea to be present. That’s when its possible to say that the ground is clean, possibly tactfully point out to the shearer that the second cuts should be avoided and choose the best wool. But let’s believe that we are in front of a mountain of raw wool. Then the next steps are:
Sorting the wool, possibly teasing it
Washing
Drying
Possibly teasing (again)
Carding or combing
Finally now can the wool be spun easily. Shortcuts can be taken- for example, when the weather is warm spinning can be done clean, freshly shorn and not too greasy wool straight off the sheep, without further preparation. But every perfectly-executed step in the preparation process saves time for the further steps. Meaning, well-sorted wool is faster to wash, well-teased wool takes less effort to card, and so on.
Dyeing (optional) can be done before washing (for irregular colour effects), after washing, after carding/combing, after spinning or even after knitting – its on your schedule and choice and the effect you are looking for.

Sorting:
It’s important to remove (and save for mulching your garden): all the mucky bits, short hair (second cuts), felted bits and as much as possible all foreign matter (straw, hay, bugs…)

Washing:

Washing method varies according to the season, local conditions, the kind of wool and the demands. Important to avoid:
Abrupt changes in water temperature
Rubbing or too vigorously stirring the wool
Those two actions would result in felting.

There is a very easy method for wool that is not too greasy (i.e. breeds without Merino influence) – but it does not work in winter:
Pour  rain water in a bucket (rain water is soft which is good for wool)
Settle the wool into the bucket till it’s comfortably full (don’t overfill)
Keep the bucket under the sun and wait
Later on (depending on your schedule) pour out water (good fertilizer) and repeat procedure with clean water until the wool looks clean (or the water pours off clear)
Spread out the wool for drying and wait
This particular washing method can take a few days, but originally the work is some ten minutes per bucket. This method works for large amounts of wool in summer, when its washed for stash.

During winter time or when the wool is very greasy extra work is needed. The only way to get rid of the grease is with hot water and detergent (wool detergent, dish washing liquid or hair shampoo without conditioner). Then it’s important to be careful to avoid felting. Basically that means NO rubbing, only carefully stirring, always use water at an equivalent temperature. Finally, rinse out well and also a bit of vinegar can be added to the rinse water (wool stands acids very well but is threatened to be damaged by bases). But that is all that has to observed. Of course, washing wool can be turned into science, add soda to the washing water and use home-made natural soap – but why? If the wool is not squeaky clean after washing, it won’t matter: in order to dye the wool will be simmered for half an hour, after spinning the yarn will be washed (or at least rinsed), after weaving or knitting the garment will be re-washed.

Teasing:

Besides, a good amount of dirt will fall out of the wool when teased – no matter how clean you thought it was. The purpose of teasing as preparation for carding (for drum carding teasing process is essential) is to loosen the wool and spread it out in order to avoid any lumps. Moreover all the vegetable matter, beetles, second cuts matters will be taken out – everything that’s not supposed to end up in the yarn. Keep a newspaper on your lap, hear some good music (teasing takes a  good amount of time and is not exactly intellectually demanding) and keep two buckets close by: One for the teased wool and other one for waste

Carding:
Carding with Hand Cards
Hand cards are not very expensive, easily portable and there are many different versions (shape and distance between the teeth). Their main disadvantage is that you simply can only card alittle amount of wool directly (1 to 2 g). Benefits are that the wool need not necessarily be teased before carding. And the so-called “rolags” can be made, little rolls of wool that make long-draw spinning simpler and permit a true “woollen” yarn as per Mable Ross’s methods.

Spinners have made carding a bit easier: Firstly take one card in your left hand (teeth face up) and start stroking it with wool over the cards till the time the teeth are protected with a thin layer of wool. Next take the second card in your right hand (teeth face down) and brush it over the card in your left hand. The brushing starts at the right edge and moves towards the left – as if it was meant to brush out long hair from bottom to top. While brushing wool, fibres are carried from the left-hand card to the right-hand card. The cards’ teeth should NOT mesh while brushing! After sometimes you can’t transfer any more hairs from left to right with this superficial brushing action. Next step is to dig the right card’s teeth into those of the left card, tilt the right card and lift it off – but avoid pulling one card’s teeth through the other’s! This tilting and lifting action will transfer the remainder of the fibres from the left-hand card to the right-hand card.
And then for the unorthodox part: you can just turn both cards around – the right-hand (full) card faces up, the left-hand card is teeth down. Now your brush with the left hand on top of the right. So both hands do same amount of work. After 3 to 5 card changes the wool should be prepared to spinning and you can remove it by lifting off the whole batt. Then it can be rolled up in such a way that the fibres will parallel to each other which will result in a smoother (semi-worsted) yarn. Or else rolling up the fibres from the end(which leads to a rolag) – together with your hands or by brushing the empty card over the complete one but this point in order that the handles point within the same direction will work.

Carding with a Drum Carder:

Drum carders are expensive and you can’t get them cheaply on online websites either. The fibres must be very well prepared for hand carding, which is why a drum carder does not save as much time as people might think. Drum carders that are cheaper, small in size, light-weight and of simple and no-maintenance are available in the market. Carding with them is much easier and you’ll get wool batts of around 14 to 30 g (0.5 to 1 oz) with fibres arranged parallel to each other.
Light-weight carders should be fixed to the table for carding. Next Step is to get the carefully teased fibres onto the feed tray, hold the fibres near the licker-in drum (the small one) and switch the massive drum by means of the crank. The licker-in drum will turn (but slower), take up the fibres and pass it on to the massive drum where the fibres are going to be arranged more or less length-wise. Steady cranking and adding fibres will fill the big drum. Once the big drum is full you pass a long, sharp object (a doffer stick or a knitting needle) through the gap in the teeth where the ends of the carding cloth meet on the drum and take off the fibres until they separate. Now batt can be taken off carefully.

Carding for one time will not be sufficient in most cases. So you will have to separate the batt, thin it out by pulling, and card it again. And maybe once or twice or more… mostly three passes through the carder are sufficient for fibres of one kind and colour, but for blending more passes will likely be required.

Every time once you want to card a special fibre you would like to carefully clean both drums of the carder. This may take the maximum amount time as carding itself. Therefore it suggested to drum-card in one go all the washed wool of one kind.

• Is Drum Carder Worth To Buy?
To explain it better: Even with a drum carder, carding takes a lot of time and is tedious work. Maybe not carding on its own, but the teasing, which may take a lot of time if the fleece is average.(badly shorn or lots of vegetable matter). And a drum carder can neither transform a nasty fleece into an honest one, nor automatically remove foreign matter. Even if some dirt particles does fall out during carding, a good amount of seeds and bits of hay will stay in the wool and those pieces will have to be picked out one by one.
Purchasing a drum carder is merely sensible after you can get large amounts of wool for low cost (from your neighbour’s sheep, for example). Purchasing washed locks is useless- the price difference between washed locks and ready-to-spin rovings or top is not much. Besides, industrially washed wool is usually partly felted – it’s going to be so bad that you simply can’t tease the locks apart together with your fingers – you’d likea picker (the next step in industrial processing). Undoubtedly, a drum carder is also a perfect pick for blending bought rovings or tops – but whether you would like to  spend that amount of money for that purpose is your call.

  • The Process of Hand Spinning for the Raw Wool

Step 1: Material

Spinners wish to work with prepared sheep’s wool, cited as roving, which has been washed to induce eliminate excess lanolin (grease) and carded or combed to orient all the individual fibers within the same direction. Roving are found at any local yarn store, or from several online retailers. attempt to avoid “top” for now, the wool that has been combed to leave only the longest fibers, which makes things difficult for the beginner, although is to spin with a small amount of practice under your belt!

Step 2: Pre-draft

Play with the roving. Break off a bit of roving a few foot long, and pull gently on either end, noticing how it stretches out and gets thinner as you pull. (You may also notice that if you pull hard enough, it’ll break.. In case this happens, no need to worry, just set aside the small sized  pieces and use them later once you’ve read about joining.) Start by trying  to stretch with your hands 6 inches, 4 inches, 2 inches apart. you’ll notice that there’s a threshold distance where the roving will not stretch because your hands are too near one another. this can be because this distance is a smaller amount than the staple length, which is that the length of the individual fibers within the roving.
Keep gently stretching out the roving until it’s a minimum of twice as long because the original length.

Step 3: Fiber Management

Tie your pre-drafted roving around your left (or not-dominant) wrist. Its more handy to possess a yarn bracelet for tucking the top of the roving into. As the spinning starts, you’ll start to unwind the roving from your wrist.
This is important serving the same purpose as a distaff, although for our purposes and less number of fiber, a wrist will just be alright.

Step 4: Attach a Leader

Using a plied scrap yarn (more than one strand, which is typical of yarn) tie a bit a few foot long to the shaft of your spindle. Usually spinners  use a half-hitch here, but unspecified knot will do.. Bring the leader round the fringe of the whorl (many spindles have a handy notch within the edge for this purpose) and under the hook at the highest of the spindle shaft.
Before introducing any sort of fiber into the equation, its important to give your spindle a (clockwise) spin by twirling the shaft below the whorl and allowing it to hang from the leader. Check how the spindle keeps going for a few time before the twist within the yarn fights back and calm it down.

Step 5: Join Fiber to Leader

Tease out some fibers from the top of your roving and hold them along with the top of your leader using your paw together. With your other hand, give your spindle an proper clockwise spin, and let it hang, keeping your left pinching leader and fiber together. Pay attention on the fiber twisting onto the leader. Let the leader build up an honest amount of twist, then “park” your spindle by holding the shaft between your knees.

Step 6: Park and Draft

We’re visiting cheat a bit and learn with training wheels first. Spinning is basically just adding twist to a controlled amount of fiber, but you would be surprised how difficult is often to try do both things directly (that is, adding twist, and controlling the quantity of fiber getting said twist.) It’s sort of a pat-your-head and rub-your-tummy manoeuvre, so we are going to come out half the issue by using the “park and draft” method.  The “park and draft” is easiest to try to do when sitting during a chair in order that you’ll hold the spindle between your knees, leaving both hands free for fiber-wrangling.
Bring your right up to satisfy your left, and pinch where the twist ends, freeing up your mitt to maneuver back. The fiber between your hands is named the “drafting triangle.” the quantity of fiber within the drafting triangle will determine the thickness of the finished yarn. If you would like a thinner yarn, draft out the fiber within the triangle more. If you’d sort of a thinner yarn, draft out the fiber within Triangulum more. once you are content with the thickness of the drafting triangle, release your front (right) hand, letting the twist run up into Triangulum, and making yarn!
Repeat this process, moving the front hand up to the new end of the twisted section, moving your paw back, drafting, and letting twist into the newly drafted fiber. once you want to feature more twist, hold the yarn along with your left inside of the drafting triangle, where fiber turns into yarn – it is vital to stay a leash on it twist. Use your other hand to spin the spindle, build up more twist, and park it again. Keep going until you have got got a foot or two of yarn, then persist to the next step.

 Note: In-case its discover there’s an excessive amount of twist within the drafting triangle to comfortably draft, try untwisting by rolling the fiber on right side. you’ll also realize that you just simply don’t have sufficient twist, and it’s as if your yarn could easily be pulled apart, during which case you may be desperate to feature more twist.

No need to worry about how it looks at this point, the matter of concern is how the process feels, and just let your hands do a lot of the understanding.

Step 7: Winding it On:

Your freshly made yarn will eventually get too long to stay adding to comfortably. Remove the yarn and wind about 10′ approximately round the shaft of your spindle, then bring it round the whorl and into the hook again. Proceed with the “park and draft” technique.

Step 8: Addition of more fibres:

When you run out of pre-drafted fiber, or after you break your yarn, you’ll have to form a join. this is often really just the identical as once you initially joined your fiber to the leader, except that rather than a pacesetter, you’re joining to your own hand-spun.

Tease out a pair of fibres, hold them alongside the fiber at the tip of your hand-spun, and add twist until the fibres grip together.  Twist is like glue for fibers, and that they will automatically grip onto one another. Now again continue spinning as earlier.

Step 9: Remove the Training Wheels:

When things are beginning to feel easy, try spinning without parking the spindle. You can also get up and spin, and with practice even walk and spin. You may also want to administer your spindle some more serious spin by rolling it against your thigh rather than spinning it along with your fingers, but confirm you’re proceeding with the same direction of spin (which should be clockwise.)
Keep spinning until you have a full spindle!

Step 10: Wind a Hank and Block:

Your finished yarn must be taken off from the spindle for laundry, also called “blocking.” Blocking will set the yarn, and help it bloom a touch. If you were to be making a plied yarn, you’d first twist the finished “single” (that’s the name for what you’ve just made) with one or more other singles before blocking. But since we are just making one, we’ll plow right ahead to creating a hank.

You could purchase a niddy-noddy, which is specifically designed for winding yarn into hanks, and is fun to mention, but you’ll also just use your forearm.
Twist the yarn off of the spindle and into a series of loops around your thumb and elbow. Bind the ends jointly, and utilize scrap yarn to make one or two ties around one side of the hank, which might keep the yarn from getting tangled. The hank will be all crooked  and twisted.

To block your yarn, submerse it in lukewarm water, gently squeeze out the surplus water, snap it between your hands a couple of times or some folks even whack it against a tough surface) and hang it for drying. I hang my hanks on doorknobs, or curtain hooks.  Since this is often one, and features a lot of active twist, you’ll also want to weigh it down it to assist get the kinks out. A spray bottle filled with water or any different liquid works well as a weight, since it will easily be hooked onto lower half the hank. Alternatively, if you happen to possess a yarn swift, you’ll stretch your hank thereon to dry.

You can turn a hank of yarn into a skein by twisting it some times, folding it in half, and pulling one end through the loop at the opposite end.

 

  • Dying wool before or after spinning?

It totally depends on the effect you are willing for. If you dye after spinning, unless you get absolutely 100% saturation of dye completely consistently through the skein, you may find yourself with a touch of variation. What quite variation will rely on the tactic of dyeing you employ – for the foremost solid black possible (which is hard to start with, I hated dyeing black) you must vat color with plenty of water, let the yarn submerge in the dye and only after it’s fully saturated, add the acid component so it soaks up as evenly as possible.

What form is the fleece in right now? just loose fleece? does one plan on processing it in a way before spinning? Carding? or instead are you spinning directly from the lock? If you are going to card it, that may help plenty with fluffing the fleece keep a copy before spinning. it’ll also help even out the colour, since you’ll pull out any sections that aren’t as evenly dyed and distribute them evenly thoughout all the fleece. The resulting yarn will look more tweedy since there’ll be slight variations of reminder black blended together. this can also look more sort of a natural undyed black fleece, since even black fleeces have some variation to them. Dyeing the yarn after spinning will provides it more of a dyed black look.

Either way, obviously minimize agitation while dyeing. For fleece and handspun yarns, you would  begin  with cold water with the pre dissolved dye, and lower the yarn/fiber into it – for an unprocessed fleece, you ought to use a mesh bag to reduce movement even further. Add gentle heat and therefore the acid, but never let it get to even a simmer. shut down the warmth and insulate it well so it retains the warmth as long as possible if you’ve weather condition where you’re, sit it within the sun for daily. With acid dyes, because the wool will suck up the dye, the water turns lighter and lighter, to the purpose of becoming totally clear if you bought the wool/dye ratio right. So if this is not happening, do another round of warmth. For the dye to strike you either need a high temp for a brief amount of your time (which often also results and uneven dyeing because the dye strikes the areas it hits first instead of dispersing through the fiber) or a lower temp for an extended period which also lead to a more even color. In your case since you do not want to agitate your wool, you’re aiming for low and slow.
Once it’s as dark and while you wish, drain the water and rinse some times. Excess dye may release at now. If you’re dyeing the fiber instead of the yarn, no must worry an excessive amount of about getting your rinse water to 100% clear – just get the picture fairly clean and confirm the fiber isn’t getting any lighter as rinse. you will be washing the yarn to line the twist after its spun anyway, you would possibly similarly finish the rinsing process then when it’s less likely to felt and obtain
matted.

The Machine Manufacturing Process:
The major steps essential to process wool from the sheep to the fabric are:
Shearing
Sheep are sheared once a year—usually within the springtime. An experienced shearer can shear up to 2 hundred sheep per day. The fleece regained from a sheep can weigh between 6 and 18 pounds (2.7 and 8.1 kilograms); the utmost amount as possible, the fleece is kept in one piece. While most sheep are still sheared by hand, new technologies are developed that use computers and sensitive, robot-controlled arms to undertake to try to to the clipping.

Grading and sorting:
Grading is that the ending of the fleece supported overall quality. In sorting, the wool is choppy into sections of varied quality fibers, from different parts of the body. the simplest quality of wool is generated from the shoulders and sides of the sheep and is used for clothing; the lesser quality comes from the lower legs and is employed to create rugs. In wool grading, high quality doesn’t always mean high durability.

Cleaning and scouring:


Wool shorn directly from the sheep is known as “raw” or “grease wool.” It contains sand, dirt, grease, and dried sweat (called suint); the load of contaminants accounts for about 30 to 70 percent of the
fleece’s total weight. to require off these contaminants, the wool is scoured during a series of alkaline baths containing water, soap, and soda ash or the same alkali. The by-products from this process (such as lanolin) are saved and utilized in a very spread of household products. Rollers within the scouring machines squeeze excess water from the fleece, but the fleece isn’t allowed to dry completely. Following this process, the wool is sometimes treated with oil to supply it increased manageability.

Carding:
Next, the fibers are well-versed a series of metal teeth that straighten and blend them into slivers. Carding also removes residual dirt and other contaminated matter left within the fibers. Carded wool intended for worsted yarn is put through gilling and brushing, two procedures that take out short fibers and keep the longer fibers parallel to each other. Since that time, the sleeker slivers are compacted and thinned through a process called drawing. Carded wool to be used for woolen yarn is shipped directly for spinning.

Spinning:

Thread is formed by spinning the fibers together to create one strand of yarn; the strand is spun with two, three, or four other strands. Since the fibers cling and persist with one another , it’s fairly easy to hitch , extend, and spin wool into yarn. Spinning for woolen yarns is sometimes done on a mule machine, while worsted yarns are often spun on any number of spinning machines. After the yarn is spun, it’s wrapped around bobbins, cones, or commercial drums.

Weaving:
Next, the wool yarn is woven into fabric. Wool manufacturers use two basic weaves: the plain weave and so the twill. Woolen yarns are constructed into fabric employing a weave (rarely a twill), which produces a cloth of a bit looser weave and a soft surface (due to napping) with little or no shine. The napping often covers flaws in manufacturing.
Worsted yarns can create fine fabrics with exquisite patterns employing a twill. The result’s a more tightly woven, smooth fabric. Better in construction, worsteds are more durable than woolens and thus more costly.

Finishing
After weaving, both worsteds and woolens go through a pattern of completing procedures containing : fulling (immersing the fabric in water to create the fibers interlock); crabbing (permanently setting the interlock); decating (shrink-proofing); and, occasionally, dyeing. Although wool fibers are usually dyed before carding, dyeing can also be done after the wool has been woven into fabric.

 

  • By-products

The use of waste is extremely important to the wool industry. Attention to the current aspect of the business contains a direct impact on profits. These waste are classified into four classes:

Noils: these are the short fibers that are divided from the long wool within the combing process. due to their best condition, they’re same in quality to wool . They constitute one amongst the most important sources of waste within the industry and are reused in high-quality products.
Soft waste: This material is of high-quality and falls out while spinning and carding stages of production. This material is sometimes reintroduced into the method from which it came.
Hard waste: These wastes are produced by spinning, twisting, winding, and warping. This material requires lots of re-processing and is that’s why it’s considered to be of lesser value.
Finishing waste: This includes a good type of clippings, short ends, sample runs, and defects. Since this material is so different, it needs a superb deal of sorting and cleaning to recover that which is usable. Consequently, this material is that the lowest grade of waste.

• Quality Check
Most of the quality control within the assembly of wool fabrics is completed by sight, feel, and measurement. Loose threads are taken off with tweezer-like instruments called burling irons; knots are pushed to the rear of the cloth; and rest of the specks and minor flaws are taken care of before fabrics go through any of the completing procedures.
The USA Congress passed the Wool Products Labeling Act in 1941. the aim of this act was to shield producers and consumers from the unrevealed presence of substitutes and mixtures in wool products. This law needs that every one products having wool (with the allowance of upholstery and floor coverings) should carry a label quoting the content and percentages of the materials within the fabric.
This act also legally defined many terms that will standardized their use within the industry. a number of the key terms identified within the Act are:
Wool, refers to new wool. it’s going to also contain new fiber reclaimed from scraps and broken threads.
Repossessed Wool. Material that’s obtained from scraps and clips of latest woven or felted fabrics made up of previously unused wool.
Reused Wool. Wool scraped out from old clothing and rags that are used or worn.

• The Longer term
The present day extensive use and requirement for wool is so high that there is little doubt that wool will still sustain its position of importance within the material industry. Only a significant innovation that encompasses the varied attributes of wool—including it warmth, durability, and value—could threaten the prominence of this fiber.

 

Article By: Saba Shaikh

Reference:

 

https://spinoffmagazine.com/preparing-raw-fleece-for-spinning/

https://www.mybluprint.com/article/spinning-grease

https://www.reddit.com/r/Handspinning/comments/82u7x4/dying_wool_before_or_after_spinning/

https://www.lahottee.info/E_FiberPreparation.php
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Wool.html#ixzz6SlLls2sz

https://www.lahottee.info/E_Wool.php

https://www.instructables.com/id/spinning-yarn/