Smart textiles are one of areas that provides textile materials. It is a sector that has been developed with new fibres ,new technologies and the textile materials. Smart textiles are classified into three groups as passive smart textiles , active smart textiles ultra smart textiles .Passive smart textiles are the first generation of smart textiles and sense the external conditions for instance protecting clothing , conductive fibres etc.
Smart textiles are materials and structures that sense and react of environment conditions , such as mechanical , thermal , electrical , magnetic or other source . The demand of smart materials and intelligent textiles grows increasingly all over the world . The technology has also taken control of textile industry . Smart textiles have functionalities for the applications ranging from simple to more complicated uses such as military , healthcare , sportswear etc. Passive smart textiles can only sense the environment. UV protecting clothing , conductive fibres etc are the examples of passive smart textiles . Ultra smart textile essentially consists of a unit which works like a brain with cognition , reasoning and activating capacities . The market for smart textiles is growing with a high potential globally . In emerging economics , the market share of smart textile consumed relative to conventional textile products is increasing .
Functions of smart textiles
Smart textiles are smart systems that can both perceive communicate the environmental conditions . They can use electrical , heat , machinal , chemical , magnetic and other detection systems to detect them. Wearable computing systems being attached to the garment in some way. The equipment used is placed in non- textile ways without being integrated . Although some electronic materials have been reduced to be used in garments , use actual smart garments should use materials made entirely by textile production. The electronic materials to be placed must not impair the comfort of the standard textile materials garment. Smart textiles have five functions as sensors , data processing actuators, storage , dada communication .
Applications of smart textiles
1.Color – changing textiles
Colour – changing textiles are intelligent textile materials that have the ability to change colour with an external stimulus effect. Colour changing materials materials are chromic materials or chameleon materials, They have many different colour – changing mechanisms , but mostly the electron density or molecular structure of the material changes due to the external stimulus effect. When the stimulus effect disappears, they return to their initial state where they are more stable and get their first colour. Colour changing materials are specified according to the effect mechanism . Light , heat , pH change , friction . solution and pressure are basic effect parameters . The application of chromic materials to textile materials can be done by different methods at different stages. Colour changing fibres can be obtained by melt spinning or wet resin and coated onto the fabric surface , using them for fabric printing or dyeing . Smart textile change colour depending on environmental , they are important because od their esthetic advantages. Colour changing textiles will become more widespread in the future in the field of fashion. Colour changing textiles depending on many other effects. Photochromic , thermochromic textile applications can be seen in fashion etc. They are available for bags , T-shirts and hats. The reversible colour – changing property of thermochromic dyes indirectly changes the heat absorbing property of the textile material. While the light reflection increase , darker colours increase heat absorption. Because of these properties, thermochromic dyestuffs are used to coat the uniforms of firefighters who turn while under very high temperature and reflect the heat in this way also in building coating. The thermochromic dues accelerate the dimensional change of fibres provides another thermoregulation effect. At high temperatures , the fibres containing thermochromic dyestuff shorten. The pores of the fabric are enlarged so that a large amount of air introduced in and consequently the body temperature decreases . At the body temperature , the fibres are elongated , the pores are closed and the fabric maintain the body’s temperature.
2.Wearable smart electronic textiles
Wearable smart electronic textiles make life more reliable , healthy etc . Wearable smart electronic textiles temperature change , moisture ,light , react to these stimuli that can change itself according to external conditions , store data these data are used to produce information and communication purpose . Th this case they are perceived as intelligent technologies that will have the qualities to support the vital activities of human beings such as sensation , movement, etc. The four basic elements of wearable smart textiles are conductivity , wireless , communication module , sensors and power supply. These components are depending on the nature .
Innovations in smart textiles
Smart Denim jacket
Smart denim jacket designed by Levi’s turns a portion of the fabric on the sleeve into a touch – sensitive remote control for phones to be helpful in everyday life. This is a second version of their jacquard smart jacket , the first jacket introduced in 2017 . The iconic jacket merges style with innovative jacquard technology and allows the wearer to answer calls , play music and take photos right from the sleeve . In this jacquard technology innovation , the jacket lets you access digital services right from the cuff, wherever you go. The technology allows to use touch gestures like swiping and tapping on the left cuff of the jacket to issue commands . The new and the improved jacquard tag wirelessly connects your trucker jacket to your smartphone. Jacquard tag provide you helpful alerts like when you have left your phone behind. using on the tag and vibrations in the cuff to get your attention.
Graphene based smart textiles
Graphene has already made a huge blast in the next step of wearable technology. A renowned company producer , suppliers pf graphene based produced , teamed up with Colmar . The high end sportswear company has launched a new collection of SKI jackets containing graphene bases products . The new technology of ski jacket contains graphene plus G+ and is worn by the French national ski team for multiple successful tournaments . It was explained that the key benefits of incorporating G+ is that it enables the fabric to act as a filter between the body and the external environment , ensuring the ideal temperature for the wearer . A Chinese company called shanghai Kyorene New Material Technology has also developed a Graphene fibre that has used to produce cloths , sportswear and underwear products. Recently some of researchers have designed a low cost, sustainable and environmentally friendly method for making conductive cotton fabrics using graphene .These fabrics could lead to smart textiles and interactive clothes that will find applications healthcare , wearable and more functionalization of these conductive cotton fabrics was done by thermal reduction of graphene oxide adsorbed on cotton . Graphene has also strong cytotoxicity toward bacteria. This can be highlighted for maternity cloths to create that prevent the growth of bacteria on the surface of the fabrics.
Various developments in smart textiles , technologies , materials , electronics ,fibre and fabrics and wearable makes systems more convenient but the most important parameters for users to accepts wearable devices is comfort is sufficient .The development of intelligent textiles , materials with a deep understanding of textiles technology .