The origin has many names and named by the companies producing it. It started with the discovery of Nylon in United States then Terylene in England. In 1951 Du Pont started selling it in the name of Dacron.
One must be aware that half of the clothes we wear are made of polyester – a man-made synthetic fiber that is derived from petrol and coal. It is made of chemical reactions between acid and alcohol in which two or molecules come together to a make a large molecule which has a repetitive nature and is relatively stronger than other fibres. For better understanding, Poly means “many” and ester means a “basic organic compound”. And the principle component of it is Ethylene which comes from Petroleum. Ethylene is also a polymer which is a chemical building block and the process that produces polyester is called “Polymerization”.
Now there are two main Polyes- ters sold widely – PET and PCDT. However PET is stronger the PCDT and PCDT has more elasticity then PET. PCDT is used more in home draperies and furnishings and PET is either used alone or blended with other fibers to make it stain and wrinkle resistant.
It is normally compared with cotton – the other most important natural fiber. The comparison includes durability, breathability, accessibility, finishing and many more. One gives you more biodegradability and other is a disaster for our environment. Polyester is one of those fibers which are harmful for our environment. But since it is impossible to reverse; the world people are now trying to increase the biodegradability of polyester as well. Let us know the new changes and biodegradable solutions to the textile and fashion industry, so that even we can contribute towards the betterment of our world. Since we live in a society where we can not do without textiles, one thing we can do is use resources which are already available or can be recycled or reduced in a formal way.
Polyester is made in four forms:
- Staple – polyester that are short in length and are easy to blend.
- Filament – Polyester that are lengthy and are smooth as well.
- Tow – long filaments blended loosely to each other
- Fiberfill – voluminous form that are used in quilts, pillows etc.
Its main properties are that it doesnot absorb moisture but oil which makes it best fabric to make it water, soil, stain and fire resistant. It is also preshrunk during the process which leads to no deformation or stretch after use. It is easily dye able and does not color fast easily.
Polyester is very useful in many industries, including textile and technical textiles. It is used in clothing, home textiles, industry driven fabrics, insulations and many more fields. It is also antiallergenic which makes it suitable to be used in bed covers, clothing and medical dresses. Polyester covers half of the textile and fashion industry due to its various properties.
Trainee Editor at TVC
P.G Student, Department of Textile Science and Apparel Design SNDT Women’s University