The heritage of Lithuanian folk textiles is a significant part of the heritage of world culture, on which different ideas and customs are imprinted, with a focus on educating society’s self-consciousness and maintaining national identity. This paper deals with a complex study of the Lithuanian national fabrics gathered by the author’s extensive expeditions to rural Lithuanian territories. The current report presents the findings of the
The peculiarities of the authentic woven textile designs, colors and ornamentation created since the middle of the 19th century until now. The significance of this study is that it investigates only authentic textiles obtained from weavers or their relatives in Lithuanian villages, and the presence of these articles has been undisclosed up to now. This research presents collected, registered and investigated data concerning colors, ornamentation and patterns as expressive possibilities of designs of Lithuanian folk textile: dimai and pick-up fabrics. The current analysis discovers new features of originality of the national fabrics.
Key words- folk fabric, pattern, ornament, textile design, textile heritage.
The modern world’s textiles and garments are most frequently influenced by folk-wear. It is crucial to enrich the artistic efforts of designers in terms of imagination in order to foster the originality and diversity of apparel, which are vital elements of the fashion industry, for which art is a significant and indispensable source. The techniques and forms of traditional art develop slowly. Several studies deal with traditional folk textiles from different countries: Italy (Tuscan Cloth wool fabric-local Tuscan wool from 50 percent Sardinian wool and 50 percent Comisana sheep wool, among others); Japan (traditional Japanese Chirimen fabrics for kimonos, where Chirimen is the generic name for silk fabric with its surface crimps, alternating between right and left hard-twist yarn. The ornamentation, colors and patterns of the decorations are important. It is possible to use folk textiles as a source of modern designs. Inquiries of this type In defining the interdisciplinary role, they are also important. In addition, even textiles such as smart materials of the new millennium are interesting from such As semantic expression and symbol function, points of view, and they also have semantic expression and symbol function, Multidisciplinary in character. Lithuanian national fabrics have been important in daily festival life and rituals for centuries. Bed, covers for the table and floor, towels, sashes and mats Embellished home interiors. The bride’s fabrics are given as gifts at weddings. In The sash was of great importance during the christening ceremonies. The lay-out place, room and setting were decorated with textile spreads, sashes and towels at funeral ceremonies. In addition, handmade textiles adorned church alters, floor and vestry interiors, as well as being used for dressing participants in the procession and flags. Data on the ornamentation of traditional Lithuanian fabrics is also presented in this reference. Over the past decade, new publications have been published on some forms of traditional In Poland, Turkey and Croatia, Lithuanian fabrics have been written.
Weaving technology, raw materials and unique uses influence the ornamentation of Lithuanian national fabrics According to the fact that checked fabrics were devoted to Polish folk textiles, they were mainly used in districts bordering Lithuania. Folk textiles are an important area of material heritage that is very time-sensitive, and due to the gradual disappearance of old Lithuanian villages and handicrafts, their preservation is significant. In particular, it is important to investigate and reasonably systematise unknown cultural issues that could help expose and maintain national identity as well as characteristics of regional cultural peculiarities and create possibilities for modern articles to recreate tradition. Consequently, folk textiles have played and still play an important role in Lithuania as an important emblem of the times. The purpose of the current study was to gather, document and analyse new data. As expressive possibilities for designs of original Lithuanian folk textile articles, coloration and ornamentation are still present in private collections of rural masters or their families. The research materials have expanded the information available, complementing the textile tradition with new authentic, visual and factual data that will serve as the basis for further interdisciplinary investigations into heritage, technology and cultural history.
The aim of the investigation is newly national overshot and pick-up fabrics Discovered during the authors’ expeditions to rural areas of Lithuania where spinners and weavers still live. In addition, home-made fabrics have been important in many instances to date, not only in meeting daily needs, but also for national traditions and common creations. The field examined encompasses Lithuania’s north and east regions. From the national textile point of view, this territory was chosen because it is very peculiar: the weaving practices of national fabrics are old in this region, but not much studied in scientific articles, and the fabrics are especially colorful, have different patterns and are originally ornamented. The succession Traditional craftsmanship is critical here. More than 300 dimai (Lithuanian overshot fabrics) as research materials Textile articles as well as pick-up articles were found and analysed. Only on a weaving loom is the ornamentation of dimai produced, while that of pick-up fabrics is further created by the hand of the master. From the 7th decade of the 19th century until today, it was found that the overshot fabrics examined were woven. Such a long period of time demonstrates the value and worth of the retention of heritage by the families of masters. In Lithuania, the importance of this craft is great: we calculated that 4.3% of the fabrics investigated were produced over the last decade, i.e. since 2011. The weaving of pick-up articles is still known to this day.
The knowledge gathered offers information on the particularities of weaving, methods, ornamentation, master’s experience, and the importance of weaving. Fabrics used in daily and seasonal environments are handmade. During several ethnographic expeditions, fieldwork was conducted. The specifics were collected through several questionnaires generated by the authors. As a source for further research, knowledge on the colors of yarns and dimensions of pattern repeats of fabrics was used in the current report. In the width and height directions, the measurements of pattern repeats were measured in millimeters. In the direction of fabric width, the width of the pattern repeat has been investigated and the direction of the pattern repeat height corresponds to the longitudinal direction of the fabric.
The proportion of the pattern repeat width to the pattern repeat height, which was applied as the measureless index, is one more index, the values of which were used in this article. In addition, the sizes of borders, i.e. border widths, were calculated and analyzed in the warp and weft directions. Orthodox statistical approaches have been used for data processing.
Peculiarities of fabric structure
Overshot structures woven using two ground sets are Lithuanian national fabrics of the dimai type: ground warp yarns and ground weft yarns, and one more set of wefts, i.e. patterning wefts. The designs are made of three color tones in overshot fabrics woven using four harnesses: two pure color tones, that is, one of the long pattering wefts, the second of ground wefts and ground warps, In the meantime and the third is a half-color tone made from quick weft patterning. Overshot fabrics woven using four harnesses are differentiated for this purpose. By their ripple effect, this is a very expressive particularity. In The pattern is further developed by hand in the case of pick-up fabrics, where harnesses are used only for background weaving, and the system does not depend entirely on the possibilities of the loom.
Linen spun yarns are typically commonly used for all domestic textiles. For Flax has been the principal fibrous fiber in domestic goods for hundreds of years. Lithuania’s fabrics and home textiles. In addition, since the 14th century, flax has been One of the main products commonly exported from Lithuania to Western Europe was fiber and linen spun yarn. For example, according to paper data, the variant (35.7 percent) is very frequently used to combine linen spun yarns with cotton spun yarns. Flax fiber is therefore widely used for the fabrics examined, but yarns made from other natural fibers, such as wool and cotton, are also popular. Due to their small linear density, strong strength and high uniformity, cotton spun yarns are appreciable. The wool from Lithuanian sheep breeds is very coarse, but because of their warmth, longevity, voluminous appearance and usefulness, wool spun yarns are used. In general, factory-made spun cotton yarns are applied. Meanwhile, rural masters often spin linen and wool, more rarely hemp yarns, or blends made of wool/chemical fibers, for which they use an old spinning technique: spinning with a spindle or spinning wheel. In spinning workshops/factories, certain yarns are produced. In addition, the spinning wheel is distinguished not only in Lithuania because of its technical specifications but also in an aesthetic sense. Distaffs, i.e. the boards on which tufts of fiber are attached, are the highest manifestation of creative expression. They are also very well decorated. Our expeditions have reported that the spinning wheel is still used in rural society until today, demonstrating the significance of the Lithuanian national flag:
(a) And the emotional expression of color combinations in fabric fragments;
(b) The colors of the Lithuanian national flag (yellow, green and red) in fabrics (bed spread fragment, 4 harnesses);
- c) Alteration of these colors (bedspread fragment, 4 harnesses).
Linen, acrylic, chemical, and mixed spun yarns or multifilament yarns are predominantly used as pattering weft for ornamentation and cotton for the background in overshot and pick-up fabrics. Due to their lustrous, bright colors, chemical multifilament yarns are often preferable. However, the use of multifilament yarns in the Lithuanian textile heritage is not related to an appreciable practice. As an example, during the second part of the 20th century, Lithuanian weavers used a brightly colored synthetic fiber called Polotsk (the word derives from a well-known manufacturer of man-made fibers in the city of Polotsk, Belarus) for the production of decorative ornamentation of woven fabrics.
Colors, patterns & decoration
In their colors, folk fabrics are very original. The colors and their variations used for over-shot fabrics are shown in Table 1. In terms of their frequencies, statistics of the colors are given. Natural grey or brownish colors are appropriate for some reasons, such as Covers and towels for the table. It must be noted that textiles produced later, especially materials not older than 60 years, are mostly brightly colored despite the fact that they not only have a festive use, but also a regular one. The color of the pattering wefts, of course, very much depends on the textile’s intent. The possibilities of using the articles discussed are as follows: table covers, blankets, bedspreads, folk costumes, horsecloth body cloth, lay-out cloth, curtains, and double-use fabric, such as a bedspread and table cover, for example. White colors and all shades of black, red, brown, yellow, green, and blue are widely used, as seen in Table 1. For the white color, the highest individual frequency of usage, i.e. 70.5%, was observed. Current research has also confirmed that many Lithuanian folk heritage fabrics have very vivid colors. For eg, yellow, green, or red, i.e. the colors of the Lithuanian national flag, are 16.7, 14.3, and 24.3 percent respectively, for individual frequencies. As a feeling of visual peace, this color combination produces a special emotional expression. Other research states that Overshot Lithuanian folk fabrics are typically two-colored. This fact was verified by our data because the overshot fabrics investigated are woven using two-color combinations, including in as many as 90.0% of papers. Other variations are uncommon, i.e. 3 colors- 1.4%, 4 colors- 3.8%, 5 colors- 2.4%, and 6 colors- 0.5%. In the two-colored textiles, the version with A dominant theme (67.2 percent) is the white color. It was possible to obtain amazing harmonious combinations of various light shades from monochromatic colors as well. This fact was supported by the study of monochromatic overshot fabrics for which bleached linen spun yarns or a combination of a natural light grey/brownish flax color for 1.9 percent of the overshot fabrics examined had monochromatic colors. This is particularly inherent in table covers and towels that show very authentic and special Lithuanian folk textile patterns. In addition, towels have very important importance in Lithuanian life. For example, it is known that a renowned weaver once shared around 20-30 Towels during a wedding party as presents. Like so many years ago and so on, Today, masters make dimai and pick-up towels for decoration as well. Around home interiors. These towels hang on wooden towel-horses that hang on wooden towel-horses that are especially artistically carved to create a beautiful and antique impression.
The analysis of new sources of overshot and pick-up fabrics of Lithuanian folk from new sources Private collections are sent by rural masters or their relatives. Generally traditional overshot and pick-up fabrics are two-colored. In a color like this Ground yarns are normally achromatic white or black in combination. Pattering is Pattering Weft yarns are mostly red, brown, grey, yellow, blue, and green. Natural color monochromatic patterns are very common for table covers and towels, but not for bed spreads, since such products are considered to be they are decorative textiles, so they are usually two-colored or multi-colored. In 90.0 percent of over-shot posts, combinations of two colors are found. Certain variations are seldom used, such as 3-4 colours-5.2% & 5.2% 5-6 colors-2.9 percent. Around 1.9% of the fabrics had colors that were monochromatic. A new original creates the same but with particularly colored ornamentation Model. Pattern. The mixture of the same or different colors creates expressive expressions Ornamentation variants. There are further differences in the repeats of the multi-colored fabrics.
The repetition of overshot and pick-up fabric colors from a historical time Perspective found that identical main colors predominate in analogous main colors Different times, especially the Lithuanian national flag colors (yellow, green and red). Nevertheless, later woven textiles are mostly overshot and pick-up textiles brightly colored, discovering all shades of variations of red green, yellow, blue, and other colors. The values of the pattern repeat width have mostly been slightly reduced if Compared to the height of the repeats. Therefore the study of the ratio of the pattern repeat width to the pattern repeat height in overshot fabrics showed that the range of 0.801-1000 is often used for all samples, and the frequencies were 53.4% for bed spreads, 41.9% for towels, 60.0% for table cloths, and even 65.0% for double-use fabric, i.e. bed spread &/table covers.
The size of the borders depends on the woven article being used. There is a need to apply decorations with additional components such as tufts, tassel trimmings and knitted lace for overshot and pick-up fabrics.
The material collected and research carried out to prove the disappearance further studies into textiles, such as textiles, would be focused on cultural heritage. Science, architecture, technology and crafts, as well as the history of society. They help to recognize textile heritage as a valuable source of national originality. Exclusivity, and.
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