OPTICAL FIBRE : THE FEARLESS SHIELD

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DARK LIGHT BED CANOPY CURTAINS (Optical fiber application)

By: Radha Gobinda Das, NIFT Bhubaneswar
[email protected]

Under the guidance of: Professor Mr. Gautam Bar

ABSTRACT

Begun in 2009, when Charles kao was awarded as half of the noble award for his groundbreaking findings with optical fibre which was used for the transmission of light in the field of optical communication. The product serves both scientific and ethical goals with its design approach to the society which always have led a utilitarian life starting from needlesto machine. The scientific goals underscore the advantages of application of optical fiber into new arena of designing products in the list of mundane objects of lifestyle of the people prefer having light while sleeping and the nyctophobic people (phobia of darkness) who asides in the domestic economy. However, the ethical goals raise serious questions about if the product is responsible for leading people an unhealthy dependent lifestyle. To achieve both ethical and scientific goals in a design perspective the closer understanding of
psychology of the targeted consumer can be a very crucial part. The research is deliberated
to provide an overview of textile -based home utility product with optic technology that can provide maximum degree of satisfaction and a remedy to the concerned category.

Introduction:

fig1: structure of the designed canopy curtains

It’s initiated with  the idea of incorporating the technology to something which has an inclusive existence in Indian society. Now, the product has taken its application canopy curtains that gives a cubical space to the consumer using the product, where the targeted consumers are the people who finds it comfortable to sleep with light and the nyctophobic people. Now as we can see in this image there is a deluxe sized luxurious canopy bed with two complimentary products that serves its functional properties at night time in darkness. So, the canopy bed was introduced not just for its decadence but for its utilitarian purpose to give warmth and privacy. But nowadays canopy beds are mostly used as a symbol of luxury and decadence as insecurity with privacy is no more faced as it used to be, in fact people have started using expensive night lamp set for getting a dim light effect that can be comfortable while sleeping. Now, this dark light bed canopy will cut the need for having an exclusive dim light fixture set. The curtains, have ability to provide dim light exclusively and the intensity of light will also be comfortable to human eyes, while sleeping. The third utility that this canopy bed is going to provide are its net curtains. These netted curtains can be a blessing to a country like India is it can absolutely give safety against the mosquito bites at nights. Since, mosquito borne diseases are an important cause of illness and leads to death of many in different parts of world, including India. This can provide a renewed emphasis on preventive measures at a micro and macro levels. The fourth reason, where it can give a stand to the “nyctophobic people”. The nyctophobic people are the people who face immediate anxiety, depression and insomnia in darkness and extreme uneasiness. This product gives a stand to this particular category of consumers too. But then, adding up to everything the preference of light shade can significantly matter a lot to final product. The light needs to give instant relaxation almost equivalent to no light. So, that purpose we will use red light as our brain cells are less sensitive to red lights than it is to the colour blue, white or green.

RIVEW OF LITERATURE

The canopy bed is decorative bed which features poles at each of the four corners extending four feet high or above the mattress, the decorative fabric is often draped across upper space and a flat fabric on the top surface of the bed. The canopy bed came to existence for first time in late 19th centuries by Qing dynasty and was also used by lords and noble man in medieval Europe for warmth and privacy as their attendant sleeps in the same room. The first incandescent light bulbs were produced in 1879, initially the night lampshades were made up of paper which had the primary function to disperse light equally throughout the room without hampering the sleep of person in bedroom. During the period of queen Victoria (1837-1901) these lampshades had gained a massive evolution. These lampshades had gone through massive contemporization in 19th centuries but its availability in shops and accessibility to common man became very prevalent in beginning of 20th century. Along with traditional reasons now a day’s people are also using it for avoiding pests and mosquitos. There are other resources which says that in middle ages in medieval villages of Europe these beds were used by rich landlords and noble families for getting protection from dead wasps, rats and other pests that can fall from ill-kept thatch roof. The structure of houses used to be a hall where the owners used to sleep along with the servants. So, in order to get privacy too it was used by the owners as the servants used to sleep on straws on the floor. Now, Mosquito nets are used in India since 18th century. It has been used widely since ages, since now. India is a malaria prone region. Mosquito net is a product which can be found in almost throughout the economy especially in the tribal, hilly and rural localities.

  1. What is optical fibre? :
    fig2: structure of optical fibre

    Optical fibre is a specific kind of medium and a technology that can transmit light from one source point to another end point along a strand of glass or fibre. the light travels through the medium of fibre optics in form of photons. As we, see in the diagram that light signal passes through the optical fibre by reflecting to cladding in a zig zag motion, he process is also called as “internal reflection of light”. However, the frequency of light is lost by around 30% due to the thick and denser layers of glass.

    fig 3: refraction of light in optical fiber

    It was initially used for telecommunication by Alexander Graham bell and Charles tainter in 1880s in a device called photophone, after which in 1966 Charles K Kao & George Hockman discovered there is a considerable loss in light due to the contaminants that exists in the optical fibre that can be removed. In this way the final optical fibre was manufactured for the 1st time by Corning glass works in 1970s. after which in 1975 it was used for commercial communicational purpose for the first time in 1975. It was preferred over copper because of its higher bandwidth and faster speeds, since, it doesn’t get impacted by electromagnetic interference, so there is not even any loss in signals.

    In spite of its every other benefit, there is one problem that exists in transmission of light in the purpose. Since, light laves in a straight line so, there are possibilities in loss of light in case of any bend or breakage in the optical fibre mediums.

  2. What is Nyctophobia?Basically, Nyctophobia refers to the fear of darkness. In this case, an individual experiences an extreme irrational fear in this particular act the stimulus to activates anxiety, distress, voluntary avoidance. In an absence of any visual stimuli the individual experiences uncertainty, and tension and its usually found in children but many a times its passes to their adult phase too. Now, in reality its not just the darkness that arouses their irrational extreme fear in them but the circumstance and uncertainty that darkness bring to them is what the matter of trouble for these people.According to researchers nyctophobia can lead to insomnia. As, according to a small study on college graduates suffering from insomnia shows that moreover 50% of the individuals are undergoing through fear of darkness. The individuals were suffering from nyctophobia. Nyctophobia can be treated at any time irrespectively. Now, since there are differences in the category of fears to both different age groups. Since children can develop such kind of fear possibilities to the factors in nature that can be irrational and unrealistic whereas on the other hand, the adults are more vulnerable to realistic and rational possibilities of fear. So, even then the treatment can vary with the age group limit. Since, children can develop the unrealistic and irrational possibilities to fear of darkness. so, it significant to take care of their confidence and trust. Now, matter of fact is that a normal adult is aware of the fact about absence of any irrational and unrealistic factors in nature e.g. monsters but its very crucial not to express this to the children. Getting more realistic to a nyctophobic child can make him embarrass of disclosure and can never be a helpful effort towards his/her treatment. Its really crucial listen and understand them with creating a timely constant bed time session every day by the concerned members. In order for them to feel comfortable while sleeping there can always be a dim light source in their room so, that the child can have a sound sleep. Unlike children, the adults develop more rational and logical factors of fear. The fear actually has a latent effect when on adults. So, its very crucial and a time taking process.
    1. The adults can be provided with anxiety and fear therapies
    2. Trust and respect to what they feel by concerned members
    3. Breathing and relaxation therapies
    4. Night lamp and soothing music
    5. Meditation before sleep
    6. Preventing scary factors as much possible
    7. CBT and other medical therapies by concerned doctors.

     

     

    1. Which of light to use?

    According to a recent survey conducted on hamsters, to red light at night had significantly less evidence of witnessing any depressive symptoms and differences in the brain which could be linked to depression, in case if we compare it in circumstances with blue or white lights. So, it is believed that the red shade at night time can be really beneficial for a sound and healthy sleep. our ipRGC’s Specialized photosensitive cells, which are located in the retina of our eyes can identify any light shades and it sends the message or directions to act on the body’s circadian clock. This particular set of cells regulate our body’s master clock to stay sleep or awake. When exposed to light after dark disables the body to secret any melatonin not only increases the time requirements to attain a sound sleep but also forbids the body to stay asleep. In case of red light before bed, the body produces comparatively more melatonin than if its surrounded by any artificial blue light, and that can assist you fall and stay asleep. So, when we compare different light shades it stands more sensitive to blue light and somewhat sensitive to red light. (Zhao J., Tian Y., Nie J.,Xu J., Liu D. Journal of Athletic Training. 2012, November-December; 47(6):673-678. doi: 10.4085/1062-47.6.08)

    RESEARCH GAP

    There are companies e.g. lumigram and dreamlux which have launched all their products in context of Italy and niche class as their targeted market. These products definitely satisfy the luxury needs very well but these products can’t be a daily utility product in India.

    Now, there has been many products and studies have been conducted by many organizations. Organization such as lumigram, dreamlux at their online websites. But then all these websites have to offer is luxury based products such as fashion apparels, apparel fabrics, home accessories, wall hangings collaboration with many of the global institutions. Now, dreamlux has managed to handle many projects with BMW, Nike, Microsoft, Apple, Armani, Versace, D&G, Chanel etc since 2015. Even lumigram has yet products those are constricted to luxury class fashion apparels. (source: the online websites of dreamlux and lumigram)

    fig 4: Products yet by dreamlux and lumigram

    Now, what we can observe that these all companies e.g. lumigram and dreamlux have launched all their products in context of Italy and niche class as their targeted market. These products definitely satisfy the luxury needs very well but these products can’t be a daily utility product in India.

    The product ranges have never been designed considering the nyctophobic people, since any design like this can be such a need for them. A nyctophobic person can undergo through, bedwetting, crying, screaming, freezing, chest pain, feeling sick, fast breathing, low appetite etc when are left in darkness. so, these individuals will want their parents or someone around. The one basic thing that they anyways need will be to keep some kind of lights turned on. The good part is that it can be treated at any age irrespectively. Now, this can be done with therapies, with good timely consistent sleeping time, talking and understanding them but one thing that can always be done to them is arrangement of dim light sleeping lights. The dim light canopy curtain can always be the best comforter to both the children and adult in all different ways. The other hefty factor that can never be undermined is the shade of the light. it is recommended to use dim red lights during the sleeping hours, since the human’s brain cells are less sensitive to red than it is to the blue shade. A Medical research has recently found the sleep can be improved from therapy of red light in a host of medical trials. Recent 2018 research out of Brazil & 2013 Taiwanese study analysed patients and their electroencephalography (EEG) assessed the effects of red-light therapy and other treatments on patients who suffer from migraine headaches. Researchers found that the red-light therapy not only reduces the frequency of headaches, but also was the only treatment that improved patients’ sleep disorders. ( Harvey C., Bruce A. “Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation”)

    Around 95% of Indians lives in malaria-prone zones, according to government sources, 80%of malaria reported in the country is confined to populations residing in tribal, hilly, difficult and inaccessible areas. But, in recent years since, even the urban and semi urban cities are getting affected with mosquito borne diseases such as dengue, chikungunya due to unplanned urbanization, industrialization and tremendous growth in population from rural to urban migration. So, mosquito nets are anyways a product for the people throughout the economy irrespective of its geographical locations. (World Health Organisation)

    when it comes to the context of India with every household has a preference for safety against mosquitos. So, we can easily trace this as one of the many basic products that India has to offer already. Now, along with the safety against mosquitoes, it will also provide a dimming light effect with an upper hand for a luxury look.

    If we narrow down the design approach to India, this product can serve the best facilities to people as its something pre-existing in the minds of people of India can also be a boon to the nyctophobic citizens. So, when it comes to the context of global design approach it can be a biggest gap in terms of use.

     

    RESEARCH MATERIAL:

    The main purpose of the product is to provide dim light in the night time and warmth in the form of a canopy bed curtain. So, to make the design a reality there are a few materials required:

    • Silk yarn: The idea of using silk yarn is due to its properties such as:
    1. i) Light weight
    2. ii) Good insulation properties

    iii)        Strong natural fiber

    1. iv) Most crucial that it shimmers and shines
    • Optical fiber: The optical fiber is thin fiber that carries a light from one point to another. It’s used for weaving because of its flexibility, light weightiness, durability, immune to electromagnetics and absolutely no heat effect.

    The optical fibre has to be necessarily similar diameter to thickness of threads used.

    • LED bead light: It will be used for displaying colour nuances, showing of the fabric’s texture and weave to great effect in darkened environment but it is very relevant to add red lights to the experiment. A study was performed by experts involving hamsters suggests that blue light had worst effects on mood, followed closely by white light. It has been recommended by a researcher that surprisingly. In the research there were a few hamsters exposed to red light at night had significantly less evidence of depressive-like symptoms and changes in the brain linked to depression, in comparison to blue or white light.
    • Mesh fabric: for better ventilation and passing of air through the canopy net
    • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:For making an optical fabric mosquito net, all we need is mosquito mesh fabric along with optical fabric .The structure of the net will be cubical, with a standard length of 2.75 mt and a width of 1.5 meters. Now the top surface of the canopy will have complete ventilation so that air can properly access to the person comfortability and proper ventilation keeping mosquitoes away.

      For making the fabric the warp threads have to be of 80 counts, thicker enough to build up a stronger hold and compatibility of weave with the optical fibres .

      fig 5: weaving technique (source: https://optics.org)

      Now after our (silk threads of 80) count warp threads are fitted on the warp beam, we can plain weave our weft side with optical fibre. we can weave with always minding a 2-inch gap at a 1-inch weave of optical fibre at a regular basis. We have to leave a 4-4.5-inch gap at each optical fibre inserted.

      fig 6: weaving the fabric: plain weave

      As, we see we need these all extended strands so that we can connect these all different sets of optical fibre to the Led lights via connectors. The Led lights preferred would strictly be of warm red, since it’s the colours that never attracts the mosquitoes to be nearer to the canopy net curtains. Another reason why we should prefer red is because our ipRGC’s Specialized photosensitive cells, which are located in the retina of our eyes can identify any light shades and it sends the message or directions to act on the body’s circadian clock. This particular set of cells regulate our body’s master clock to stay sleep or awake. So, when

      we compare different light shades it stands more sensitive to blue wavelengths of light and least sensitive to red wavelengths. All these led lights will be situated in the upper edge seam sack of the canopy net curtain.

      fig 7: led is out of the connector with optical fibre extensions
    Figure 8: led fitted with optical fibre via connector

    When the Led lights will be connected to the optical fibre strands woven as the weft via connectors. For connectors, we can use simple pvc connectors that can change shape with mere heat is applied on it. Now, this will lead to the transmission of the ray of light in a perpendicular direction, and it will reflect and emit light to all the portions where there is a bend or twist or turns in the direction of the optical fiber.

    For the supply of power, the power can be provided by both portable batteries and household electricity sources. Since light is something an individual can need at any moment, so, two different sources can provide light at any emergencies irrespective of power cuts.

    Fig9 : circuit mechanism for the optical fabric

    Now these optical fabric straps will be all separated properly by cutting it at each regular interval of 3 inch with 1 inch seam margins at both its sides. Ultimately, these straps will be stitched properly with the mesh fabrics with decorative seams for better hold and durability of the product.

    Figure 10: seam type preferred
    Figure 11: seam applied to connect both mesh & optical fabric

    So, if everything will be performed with the recommended methodology. It can provide aptly, suitable results.

     

    EXPERIMENT

    fig12: final product diagram with exit panels

    This set of canopy net curtain comes up with dividing panels that can be connected with zippers once the customer wants to get comfortable getting in the canopy net curtain set. Now, the division panels can also be tied up with contraction straps held on the curtains, especially during the day time or at any time situations when the user doesn’t need the closed territory. The product is basically an experiment to something pre-existing or something similar existing in the Indian economy which consists of 95% of its people residing in mosquito prone areas and at the same time it also provides a solution to the nyctophobic individuals to have a sound-healthy sleep. Now the question is if the product can fit in the basic utility product list of mass or if it can even trickle down to the masses at some point of time. The product solves the problem of providing privacy, exclusive light settings, a remedy to the people having discomfort from sleeping in darkness & safety against mosquitoes with adding a new definition of luxury and utility to the product.

     

    FUTURE PROSPECTS AND AREAS OF STUDY:

    1. The fabric application can be well used in the field of travelling and trek related accessories as there is a lot of limitation in power and light resources when we go to treks.
    2. there can be research and developments be performed in the field of silicon industry to reduce the prices of the raw optical fiber.
    3. It can be also introduced in wearable textile industry and the weaving part can introduce a lot more creativity in terms of weaving to get many varieties in the textures and designs.
    4. It can be studies in the medical field by the concerned authorities. It can be analyzed well by them in order to find out the product validation and its success in terms of acting as a remedy to the nyctophobic individuals.

     

    DISCUSSION

    The canopy net curtains is not something new to the society. In fact it’s a product of deep history belonging to 16th century. On, the other hand optical fibre is not any new invention in the world of technology, it was introduced in 1952. So, now if we have to think of its use in the world textiles can be a revolutionary idea to traditional mindsets.  The process of weaving can remain all the way similar but there can be many folds of newness given to this approach in terms of its use and product ideation.

    So, in the process of bringing it to the utility list of mundane product list lead to this decision. Now, since use of optical fibre has been quite an untraditional thing to Indian mindset. The approach can be injected to the daily use commodities of the economy. But to push any design into traditional mindsets its very relevant to care for the functional and aesthetics elements. Along with every other thing if we have to conclude the ethical and scientific existence, the product justifies its existence in the domestic economy. The product solves, the problem of exclusive commodities, a help in malaria endemic regions, it’s also a need for the people who prefer light while sleeping and the nyctophobic individuals. Canopy net curtains is designed to satisfy all the luxury and functional needs of the individual.

     

    CONCLUSION

    The canopy net curtains is designed to satisfy the Indian mindsets well. The product definitely does have features to provide a solution to different problems. It gives an inclusive combination of light and canopy with a remedy to safety against mosquitoes and a wide range of solutions for people preferring lights while sleeping on the other hand it adds a new definition of luxury with it materials. So, in other words we can say the product justifies its existence well.

    At, the same time we can also put light on to its obstructions that might occur. The product can use more than 200 meters of optical fibre and such a vast amount of optical fibre can lead to a very heavy expense to the production cost and thereby can cause a hindrance against its financial accessibility and affordability. So, there should be more and more investments on research and development sector on developing affordable optical fibers that can reduce its market price.

     

    REFERENCE

    1. Nyctophobia: From Imagined to Realistic Fears of the Dark (PSICHI JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH) by Joshua Levos and Tammy Lowery Zacchilli* Saint University, 2015
    2. Gies, Frances & Gies, Joseph, Life in a Medieval Village(HarperPerennial, 1991), p. 93( History of canopy beds)
    3. Alexander Grahambell’s photophone (Wireless Optical Communications by Olivier Bouchet)
    1. Development and Evaluation on Night Forest Virtual Reality as

    Innovative Nyctophobia Treatment

    1. Cure for nyctophobia To cite this article: E Paulus et al 2019 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1235 01200

     

    1. Red Light and the Sleep Quality and Endurance Performance of Chinese Female Basketball Players; J Athl Train. 2020 Jan.
    6. Nyctophobia – Fear or Being Afraid of the Dark; Author: Disabled World; Published2010-10-28
    7. Harvey C., Bruce A. “Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation” National Academy of Sciences. 2006, Bookshelf ID: NBK19960. doi: 10.17226/11617
    5. Zhao J., Tian Y., Nie J., Xu J., Liu D. “Red light and the sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players” Journal of Athletic Training. 2012, November-December; 47(6):673-678. doi: 10.4085/1062-47.6.08
    6. statistics on malaria; World Health Organisation; National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Government of India